Epigenomics

Publication Title: 
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

Dietary restriction (DR) increases lifespan in a range of evolutionarily distinct species. The polyphenol resveratrol may be a dietary mimetic of some effects of DR. The pivotal role of the mammalian histone deacetylase (HDAC) Sirt1, and its homologue in other organisms, in mediating the effects of both DR and resveratrol on lifespan/ageing suggests it may be the common conduit through which these dietary interventions influence ageing.

Author(s): 
Wakeling, Luisa A.
Ions, Laura J.
Ford, Dianne
Publication Title: 
Molecular Aspects of Medicine

While the eukaryotic genome is the same throughout all somatic cells in an organism, there are specific structures and functions that discern one type of cell from another. These differences are due to the cell's unique gene expression patterns that are determined during cellular differentiation. Interestingly, these cell-specific gene expression patterns can be affected by an organism's environment throughout its lifetime leading to phenotypical changes that have the potential of altering risk of some diseases.

Author(s): 
Tammen, Stephanie A.
Friso, Simonetta
Choi, Sang-Woon
Publication Title: 
Kathmandu University medical journal (KUMJ)

Sirtuins are evolutionary conserved NAD+ dependent acetyl-lysine deacetylases and ADP ribosyltransferases dual-function enzymes involved in the regulation of metabolism and lifespan. Sirtuins represent a promising new class of III NAD dependent histone deacetylases that regulate a number of physiological processes, originally identified in yeast. Sirtuins regulate various normal and abnormal cellular and metabolic processes, including tumorgenesis, neurodegeneration and processes associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity.

Author(s): 
Suvarna, B. S.
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

A naturally occurring p53 isoform that lacks 39 residues at the N-terminus (denoted ?Np53), when expressed with wild-type p53 (WTp53), forms mixed ?Np53:WTp53 tetramers and causes accelerated aging in mice. Cellular alterations specific to ?Np53:WTp53 have been difficult to assess because ?Np53 and WTp53 coexpression results in tetramer heterogeneity, including formation of contaminating WTp53 tetramers. Based on the p53 tetramer structure, we expressed ?Np53 and WTp53 as a single transcript that maintained tetramer architecture, ensuring a 2:2 ?Np53:WTp53 stoichiometry.

Author(s): 
Lin, Shih-Chieh
Karoly, Edward D.
Taatjes, Dylan J.
Publication Title: 
Clinics in Geriatric Medicine

Research into the aging process is very new. For many years aging was thought to be the natural and inevitable consequence of a life of wear and tear. The idea that aging could be influenced by the genetic code and had a modifiable biologic component is less than 20 years old. During this time, aging has come to be understood as a complex biologic process controlled by signaling pathways and transcription factors. Similar attitudes pervade the field of nephrology. Whether a decline in renal function with age represents normal aging or kidney disease is the subject of much debate.

Author(s): 
Wiggins, Jocelyn
Bitzer, Markus
Publication Title: 
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

Dietary restriction (DR) increases lifespan in a range of evolutionarily distinct species. The polyphenol resveratrol may be a dietary mimetic of some effects of DR. The pivotal role of the mammalian histone deacetylase (HDAC) Sirt1, and its homologue in other organisms, in mediating the effects of both DR and resveratrol on lifespan/ageing suggests it may be the common conduit through which these dietary interventions influence ageing.

Author(s): 
Wakeling, Luisa A.
Ions, Laura J.
Ford, Dianne
Publication Title: 
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology

The intrauterine environment is a major contributor to normal physiological growth and development of an individual. Disturbances at this critical time can affect the long-term health of the offspring. Low birth weight individuals have strong correlations with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later-life. These observations led to the Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis which suggested that these associations arose because of the response of a growing fetus to a suboptimal environment such as poor nutrition.

Author(s): 
Barnes, S. K.
Ozanne, S. E.
Publication Title: 
Clinics in Geriatric Medicine

Research into the aging process is very new. For many years aging was thought to be the natural and inevitable consequence of a life of wear and tear. The idea that aging could be influenced by the genetic code and had a modifiable biologic component is less than 20 years old. During this time, aging has come to be understood as a complex biologic process controlled by signaling pathways and transcription factors. Similar attitudes pervade the field of nephrology. Whether a decline in renal function with age represents normal aging or kidney disease is the subject of much debate.

Author(s): 
Wiggins, Jocelyn
Bitzer, Markus
Publication Title: 
Methods (San Diego, Calif.)

DNA methylation plays a vital role in normal cellular function, with aberrant methylation signatures being implicated in a growing number of human pathologies and complex human traits. Methods based on the modification of genomic DNA with sodium bisulfite are considered the 'gold-standard' for DNA methylation profiling on genomic DNA; however they require large amounts of DNA and may be prohibitively expensive when used on the large sample sizes necessary to detect small effects.

Author(s): 
Docherty, Sophia J.
Davis, Oliver S. P.
Haworth, Claire M. A.
Plomin, Robert
Mill, Jonathan
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Psychiatry

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenetics comprises heritable but concurrent variable modifications of genomic DNA defining gene expression. The aim of this publication is to review the field of epigenetics in depression. Within this scope, we outline potential therapeutic options evolving in this young field of psychiatric research. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently published papers show that epigenetic mechanisms like histone modifications and DNA methylation affect diverse pathways leading to depression-like behaviors in animal models.

Author(s): 
Schroeder, Marc
Krebs, Marie O.
Bleich, Stefan
Frieling, Helge

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