Establishing an organizational ethics committee (OEC) involves careful reflection on the needs of the organization and on the people who will serve on the committee. With concern for the "community of care" (the women and men who carry out the organization's mission), a comprehensive needs assessment will reveal areas of the organization where more education and policy analyses are needed.
A male patient was admitted to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) unit for hemodialysis. His history revealed that he was homeless and that he had tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+). He also had a history of alcohol and intravenous drug abuse and tuberculosis. Based on the results of a chest X-ray, he was placed in respiratory isolation. During the next few days of his hospitalization, he exhibited nonadherent behavior toward the treatment regime.
Living donor kidney transplantation comprises approximately 30% of kidney transplantations in the United States and is an effective form of renal replacement therapy, with low risk to the donor. Twenty percent of living donors do not have a genetic relationship with their recipients. In the selection of living donors, guiding ethical principles include altruism, the absence of coercion or monetary reward, patient autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence.
Because of the recent and controversial example of sham surgery for the evaluation of fetal tissue transplants for Parkinson's disease, there is renewed interest in the ethics of using "active" placebos in surgical trials, where otherwise there are no inert procedures available, and in pharmacological trials, where there are inert substances, but where patients may guess to which arm they have been allocated.
Acts of helping others are often based on mixed motivations. Based on this claim, it has been argued that the use of a financial reward to incentivize organ donation is compatible with promoting altruism in organ donation. In its report Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics uses this argument to justify its suggestion to pilot a funeral payment scheme to incentivize people to register for deceased organ donation in the UK.