OBJECTIVE: Recent legislation mandating the inclusion of children in clinical trials has resulted in an increase in the number of children participating in research. We reviewed the literature regarding the reasons parents chose to accept or decline an invitation to enroll their children in clinical research. METHODS: We searched for qualitative studies, written in the English language that considered the experiences of parents who had been invited to enrol their children in research.
BACKGROUND: Recruitment and retention of health workers is a major concern. Policy initiatives emphasize financial incentives, despite mixed evidence of their effectiveness. Qualitative studies suggest that nurses especially may be more driven by altruistic motivations, but quantitative research has overlooked such values. This paper adds to the literature through characterizing the nature and determinants of nurses' altruism, based on a cross-country quantitative study.
Emergency departments are challenging research settings, where truly informed consent can be difficult to obtain. A deeper understanding of emergency medical patients' opinions about research is needed. We conducted a systematic review and meta-summary of quantitative and qualitative studies on which values, attitudes, or beliefs of emergent medical research participants influence research participation. We included studies of adults that investigated opinions toward emergency medicine research participation.
Hypnosis is able to induce a state of total psychological calm in very many subjects, including maintenance or even enhancement of their ability to cooperate. A smaller number of more receptive subjects may even achieve ocular anaesthesia, though this is not suitable for the performance of operations because the Dagnini-Aschner reflex persists and hypotonia is not attained.