In linguistic theories of how sentences encode meaning, a distinction is often made between the context-free rule-based combination of lexical-semantic features of the words within a sentence ("semantics"), and the contributions made by wider context ("pragmatics"). In psycholinguistics, this distinction has led to the view that listeners initially compute a local, context-independent meaning of a phrase or sentence before relating it to the wider context.
Pain ratings and pain-related cerebral potentials in response to noxious stimuli were investigated under hypnotic hypo- or hyperalgesia. Out of a sample of 50 subjects the 10 most highly hypnotizable were selected using the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. Phasic pain was induced by brief electrical stimuli intracutaneously applied to the subject's left middle finger. The subjects took part in three experimental sessions. The first session was without hypnosis for familiarization with the experimental surroundings.
International Journal of Psychophysiology: Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology
Brain event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by auditory stimulation were used to study cerebral hemispheric activity during hypnosis. ERPs were recorded from bilateral central (C3 and C4) and temporal (T3 and T4) scalp locations in response to tone pips in 6 medium-high and 6 low-susceptible subjects in three conditions: baseline (tones only), hypnosis (tones plus hypnotic induction), and a focused attention control (tones plus a newspaper story read by the hypnotist). Task asymmetries were individually adjusted for baseline asymmetries.
The neural mechanisms associated with hypnosis were investigated in a single highly hypnotizable subject by measuring the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of auditory ERP, reflecting the preattentive discrimination of change in stimulus flow, in normal baseline state and under hypnosis. It has been proposed that the frontal inhibition associated with hypnosis can be measured as a decrease in MMN. ERPs were elicited using the passive oddball paradigm with standard and deviant sine tone stimuli of 500 and 553Hz, respectively. The measurement was repeated in five separate sessions.
We assessed the effect of propofol on the auditory steady-state response (ASSR), bispectral (BIS) index, and level of consciousness in two experiments. In Experiment 1, propofol was infused in 11 subjects to obtain effect-site concentrations of 1, 2, 3, and 4 microg/mL. The ASSR and BIS index were recorded during baseline and at each concentration. The ASSR was evoked by monaural stimuli. Propofol caused a concentration-dependent decrease of the ASSR and BIS index values (r(2) = 0.76 and 0.93, respectively; P<0.0001).
The bispectral index (BIS) and the auditory evoked potential (AEP) index as calculated by the new A-line monitor were measured during hypnosis with propofol, which included an episode of wakefulness. Both indices followed a similar pattern during sedation, with values decreasing with sedation and increasing when awake. Baseline AEP values varied between 60 and 98, and BIS values were between 96 and 98. The AEP-index value was at all times 10-20 points lower than the BIS-index. The transition to loss of response occurred at a mean AEP value of 46 and BIS value of 58.
BACKGROUND: Extraction of the middle latency auditory evoked potentials (AEP) by an auto regressive model with exogenous input (ARX) enables extraction of the AEP within 1.7 s. In this way, the depth of hypnosis can be monitored at almost real-time. However, the identification and the interpretation of the appropriate signals of the AEP could be difficult to perform during the anesthesia procedure. This problem was addressed by defining an index which reflected the peak amplitudes and latencies of the AEP, developed to improve the clinical interpretation of the AEP.
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is a balance between hypnosis and analgesia. We investigated whether an increase in remifentanil blood concentration would reduce the amount of propofol required to maintain a comparable level of anaesthesia in 60 patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. METHODS: Patients were allocated randomly to receive remifentanil to a target blood concentration of 2 ng ml(-1) (low), 4 ng ml(-1) (medium), or 8 ng ml(-1) (high), administered by target-controlled infusion (TCI).