Many patients in the ICU receive mechanical ventilation and require sedative medications. Anxiolysis, hypnosis, and amnesia can be considered the primary objects of sedative therapy. Intravenous benzodiazepines are the drugs most commonly used for sedation in ICU. Proper choice and use of benzodiazepines is based on knowledge of the pharmacology and is an essential component of caring for patients in the intensive care unit. Three benzodiazepines--Diazepam, Lorazepam and Midazolam--are currently available for parenteral use in the ICU.
Artemether (AM) plus azithromycin (AZ) rectal co-formulations were studied to provide pre-referral treatment for children with severe febrile illnesses in malaria-endemic areas. The target profile required that such product should be cheap, easy to administer by non-medically qualified persons, rapidly effective against both malaria and bacterial infections. Analytical and pharmacotechnical development, followed by in vitro and in vivo evaluation, were conducted for various AMAZ coformulations.
Artemisinin (ARMN) is a potent antimalarial drug, which is effective against multidrug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and produces rapid recovery even in patients with cerebral malaria. Being poorly soluble in water, artemisinin is incompletely absorbed after oral intake due to poor dissolution characteristics in the intestinal fluids. To enhance these properties, solid dispersions of artemisinin with succinic acid (SUC) were prepared using drug-carrier ratios 1 : 1, 1 : 4, 1 : 6, 1 : 8 and 1 : 10 by solvent evaporation and freeze drying methods.
Essential oils are ingredients of cosmetic and health care products as well as massage oil used in aromatherapy. There is no doubt that essential oils and their components are able to permeate human skin. But information is rare dealing with percutanous absorption of essential oils in more detail. In this paper we investigated the in vitro skin permeation of monoterpenes and phenylpropanoids applied in pure rose oil and in form of neat single substances. We found that the application form had an exceeding influence on the skin permeation behaviour of the compounds.
This research investigated the effects of control release of binders that are used in the pills of Chinese herbal medicine, namely, as processed honey, starch paste, beeswax, or mixtures thereof. Aspirin and baicalin were used as the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). The processed honey was heated to 110 degrees C, 120 degrees C, or 130 degrees C. In these pills, the binders were the only excipients. The pills were prepared by the stir method using a mixer at 80 degrees C without pressure.