Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Hot flushes are common in women with a history of breast cancer. Hormonal therapies are known to reduce these symptoms but are not recommended in women with a history of breast cancer due to their potential adverse effects. The efficacy of non-hormonal therapies is still uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of non-hormonal therapies in reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer.

Author(s): 
Rada, Gabriel
Capurro, Daniel
Pantoja, Tomas
Corbalán, Javiera
Moreno, Gladys
Letelier, Luz M.
Vera, Claudio
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Hot flushes are common in women with a history of breast cancer. Hormonal therapies are known to reduce these symptoms but are not recommended in women with a history of breast cancer due to their potential adverse effects. The efficacy of non-hormonal therapies is still uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of non-hormonal therapies in reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer.

Author(s): 
Rada, Gabriel
Capurro, Daniel
Pantoja, Tomas
Corbalán, Javiera
Moreno, Gladys
Letelier, Luz M.
Vera, Claudio
Publication Title: 
CNS neuroscience & therapeutics

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating and fatal neurodegenerative disease of adults which preferentially attacks the neuromotor system. Riluzole has been used as the only approved treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis since 1995, but its mechanism(s) of action in slowing the progression of this disease remain obscure. Searching PubMed for "riluzole" found 705 articles published between January 1996 and June 2009.

Author(s): 
Bellingham, Mark C.
Publication Title: 
Critical Reviews in Neurobiology

Several lines of evidence support the role of an epigenetic-induced GABAergic cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia psychopathology, which is probably dependent on an increase in the expression of DNA-methyltransferase-1 occurring selectively in GABAergic neurons. The key enzyme regulating GABA synthesis, termed glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and the important neurodevelopmental protein called reelin are coexpressed in GABAergic neurons. Upon release, GABA and reelin bind to postsynaptic receptors located in dendrites, somata, or the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons.

Author(s): 
Costa, E.
Davis, J. M.
Dong, E.
Grayson, D. R.
Guidotti, A.
Tremolizzo, L.
Veldic, M.
Publication Title: 
Neuron

One of the exceptional properties of the brain is its ability to acquire new knowledge through learning and to store that information through memory. The epigenetic mechanisms linking changes in neuronal transcriptional programs to behavioral plasticity remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the epigenetic signature of the neuronal enhancers required for transcriptional regulation of synaptic plasticity genes during memory formation, linking this to Reelin signaling.

Author(s): 
Telese, Francesca
Ma, Qi
Perez, Patricia Montilla
Notani, Dimple
Oh, Soohwan
Li, Wenbo
Comoletti, Davide
Ohgi, Kenneth A.
Taylor, Havilah
Rosenfeld, Michael G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management

Neuropathic cancer pain may be less responsive to opioids than other pain. Several studies suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonists could play a role in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Ketamine is an NMDA-receptor antagonist that is used as an anesthetic and has been suggested as a useful drug for neuropathic pain. Subanesthetic doses of ketamine can yield analgesia without hypnosis.

Author(s): 
Mercadante, S.
Lodi, F.
Sapio, M.
Calligara, M.
Serretta, R.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Pharmacology

Different effects of moderate to high doses of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, including sedation/hypnosis, have been found to be blocked by gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) receptor antagonists. The present study investigated whether the protective effect of GABAB receptor antagonists extends also to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid-induced mortality. To this aim, the present study investigated the effect of the GABAB receptor antagonist, (2S)(+)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH 50911; 100 mg/kg, ip), on mortality induced by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (1-6 g/kg, ip) in DBA mice.

Author(s): 
Carai, Mauro A. M.
Colombo, Giancarlo
Gessa, Gian Luigi
Publication Title: 
Psychopharmacology

RATIONALE: Toluene exposure during brain growth spurt has been shown to elevate the seizure susceptibility induced by N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA). In the present study, behavioral responses to NMDA antagonists were studied to determine whether neonatal toluene exposure produces residual deficits in the NMDA glutamatergic system controlling behaviors. We also investigated if the effect of toluene exposure depends strongly on the developmental stage.

Author(s): 
Chien, Te-Hsiung
Chan, Ming-Huan
Tang, Yu-Chi
Chen, Hwei-Hsien
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology

The present study was designed to investigate the role of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified volatile anesthetics. After having established the mice model of hypnosis and analgesia by intraperitoneally injecting (i.p.) appropriate doses of ether, enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane, we intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) injected different doses of strychnine and then observed the effects on the sleeping time using the awaken test and the pain index in hot-plate test (HPPI) using the hot-plate test.

Author(s): 
Chen, Yan
Dai, Ti-Jun
Zeng, Yin-Ming
Publication Title: 
Anesthesiology

BACKGROUND: It is well documented that several general anesthetics, including propofol, potentiate glycine receptor function. Furthermore, glycine receptors exist throughout the central nervous system, including areas of the brain thought to be involved in sleep. However, the role of glycine receptors in anesthetic-induced hypnosis has not been determined. METHODS: Experiments were conducted in rats where the loss of righting reflex (LORR) was used as a marker of the hypnotic state.

Author(s): 
Nguyen, Hai T.
Li, Ke-yong
daGraca, Ralph L.
Delphin, Ellise
Xiong, Ming
Ye, Jiang H.

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