Executive Function

Publication Title: 
NeuroRehabilitation

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a well-established sequela of people suffering from neurological pathologies. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of exercise intervention programs on cognitive performance in participants suffering from stroke, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Four online databases (CINAHL, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PEDro) were comprehensively searched from their inception through December 2014.

Author(s): 
Kalron, Alon
Zeilig, Gabi
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

INTRODUCTION: Recent reviews have documented the beneficial effects of seated meditation on executive function (EF). However, there has yet to be a comprehensive review on the effects of Hatha yoga, a moving meditation, on EF. OBJECTIVE: To examine the empirical literature on the effects of Hatha yoga on EF. METHODS: MEDLINE, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases were searched for experimental studies (between- or within-subject designs) testing the effects of Hatha yoga (acute bouts, short-term interventions, longer-term interventions) on EF.

Author(s): 
Luu, Kimberley
Hall, Peter A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

INTRODUCTION: Recent reviews have documented the beneficial effects of seated meditation on executive function (EF). However, there has yet to be a comprehensive review on the effects of Hatha yoga, a moving meditation, on EF. OBJECTIVE: To examine the empirical literature on the effects of Hatha yoga on EF. METHODS: MEDLINE, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases were searched for experimental studies (between- or within-subject designs) testing the effects of Hatha yoga (acute bouts, short-term interventions, longer-term interventions) on EF.

Author(s): 
Luu, Kimberley
Hall, Peter A.
Publication Title: 
Disability and Rehabilitation

PURPOSE: To critically appraise the research literature on the nature of falls and fallers in traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation settings. METHOD: An integrative review of the literature using thematic analysis was undertaken. Papers identified via a systematic search strategy were independently appraised by two reviewers. A data extraction instrument was developed to record results and to aid identification of themes in the literature. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme instruments were utilised to conduct a methodological critique of the papers included.

Author(s): 
McKechnie, Duncan
Pryor, Julie
Fisher, Murray J.
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

With a rapidly aging society it becomes increasingly important to counter normal age-related decline in cognitive functioning. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training programs may have the potential to counteract this decline. On the basis of a growing body of research that shows that meditation has positive effects on cognition in younger and middle-aged adults, meditation may be able to offset normal age-related cognitive decline or even enhance cognitive function in older adults.

Author(s): 
Gard, Tim
Hölzel, Britta K.
Lazar, Sara W.
Publication Title: 
Consciousness and Cognition

Mindfulness is theorised to improve attention regulation and other cognitive processes. This systematic review examines whether 8-week standardised and manualised mindfulness training programs such as Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) enhances attention, memory and executive function abilities measured by objective neuropsychological tests. Seven databases were searched resulting in 18 studies meeting inclusion criteria for review. Overall studies did not support attention or executive function improvements.

Author(s): 
Lao, So-An
Kissane, David
Meadows, Graham
Publication Title: 
Clinical Psychology Review

Mindfulness meditation practices (MMPs) are a subgroup of meditation practices which are receiving growing attention. The present paper reviews current evidence about the effects of MMPs on objective measures of cognitive functions. Five databases were searched. Twenty three studies providing measures of attention, memory, executive functions and further miscellaneous measures of cognition were included. Fifteen were controlled or randomized controlled studies and 8 were case-control studies.

Author(s): 
Chiesa, Alberto
Calati, Raffaella
Serretti, Alessandro
Publication Title: 
Depression and Anxiety

BACKGROUND: Scant research has examined the effect of neuropsychological (NP) functioning on treatment outcome in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study sought to address this gap in existing research. METHODS: A total of 63 youths were included in this study and asked to complete the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and specific subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III).

Author(s): 
Flessner, Christopher A.
Allgair, Amy
Garcia, Abbe
Freeman, Jennifer
Sapyta, Jeffrey
Franklin, Martin E.
Foa, Edna
March, John
Publication Title: 
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

The impairment of the Trail Making Test (TMT) performance as a measure of executive function deficits has been found both in patients with schizophrenia and in their unaffected first-degree relatives, suggesting that it might be considered as a familial vulnerability marker, but its heritability estimates are not well known. This study investigated the genetic heritability of impairments in TMT performance using a sample of 80 schizophrenia patients, 145 unaffected first-degree relatives and 127 healthy controls from families with multiple members with schizophrenia.

Author(s): 
QuiÒones, Ra˙l Mendoza
CalderÌn, Yuranny Cabral
DomÌnguez, Mayelin
Bravo, Tania M.
BerazaÌn, Adnelys Reyes
GarcÌa, Alexander
Caballero, Antonio
Reyes, Migdyrai MartÌn
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

CONTEXT: Recent evidence suggests that the cognitive and social manifestations associated with Turner syndrome (TS) might be influenced by epigenetic factors in the form of genomic imprinting. However, due to small and heterogeneous samples, inconsistent results have emerged from these studies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this prospective study was to establish the impact of genomic imprinting on neurocognitive abilities and social functioning in young girls with TS.

Author(s): 
Lepage, Jean-FranÁois
Hong, David S.
Hallmayer, Joachim
Reiss, Allan L.

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