Exploratory Behavior

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a recessive neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the selective loss of spinal motor neurons. No available therapy exists for SMA, which represents one of the leading genetic causes of death in childhood. SMA is caused by a mutation of the survival-of-motor-neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, leading to a quantitative defect in the survival-motor-neuron (SMN) protein expression. All patients retain one or more copies of the SMN2 gene, which modulates the disease severity by producing a small amount of stable SMN protein.

Author(s): 
Branchu, Julien
Biondi, Olivier
Chali, Farah
Collin, Thibault
Leroy, Felix
Mamchaoui, Kamel
Makoukji, Joelle
Pariset, Claude
Lopes, Philippe
Massaad, Charbel
Chanoine, Christophe
Charbonnier, FrÈdÈric
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

The contribution that oxidative damage to DNA and/or RNA makes to the aging process remains undefined. In this study, we used the hMTH1-Tg mouse model to investigate how oxidative damage to nucleic acids affects aging. hMTH1-Tg mice express high levels of the hMTH1 hydrolase that degrades 8-oxodGTP and 8-oxoGTP and excludes 8-oxoguanine from both DNA and RNA. Compared to wild-type animals, hMTH1-overexpressing mice have significantly lower steady-state levels of 8-oxoguanine in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of several organs, including the brain.

Author(s): 
De Luca, Gabriele
Ventura, Ilenia
Sanghez, Valentina
Russo, Maria Teresa
Ajmone-Cat, Maria Antonietta
Cacci, Emanuele
Martire, Alberto
Popoli, Patrizia
Falcone, Germana
Michelini, Flavia
Crescenzi, Marco
Degan, Paolo
Minghetti, Luisa
Bignami, Margherita
Calamandrei, Gemma
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

The contribution that oxidative damage to DNA and/or RNA makes to the aging process remains undefined. In this study, we used the hMTH1-Tg mouse model to investigate how oxidative damage to nucleic acids affects aging. hMTH1-Tg mice express high levels of the hMTH1 hydrolase that degrades 8-oxodGTP and 8-oxoGTP and excludes 8-oxoguanine from both DNA and RNA. Compared to wild-type animals, hMTH1-overexpressing mice have significantly lower steady-state levels of 8-oxoguanine in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of several organs, including the brain.

Author(s): 
De Luca, Gabriele
Ventura, Ilenia
Sanghez, Valentina
Russo, Maria Teresa
Ajmone-Cat, Maria Antonietta
Cacci, Emanuele
Martire, Alberto
Popoli, Patrizia
Falcone, Germana
Michelini, Flavia
Crescenzi, Marco
Degan, Paolo
Minghetti, Luisa
Bignami, Margherita
Calamandrei, Gemma
Publication Title: 
Biology Letters

The enzyme telomerase lengthens telomeres-protective structures containing repetitive DNA sequences at chromosome ends. Telomere shortening is associated with diseases of ageing in mammals. Chronic stress has been related to shorter immune-cell telomeres, but telomerase activity under stress may be low, permitting telomere loss, or high, partially attenuating it. We developed an experimental model to examine the impacts of extended unpredictable stress on telomerase activity in male rats.

Author(s): 
Beery, Annaliese K.
Lin, Jue
Biddle, Joshua S.
Francis, Darlene D.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Epel, Elissa S.
Publication Title: 
Biology Letters

The enzyme telomerase lengthens telomeres-protective structures containing repetitive DNA sequences at chromosome ends. Telomere shortening is associated with diseases of ageing in mammals. Chronic stress has been related to shorter immune-cell telomeres, but telomerase activity under stress may be low, permitting telomere loss, or high, partially attenuating it. We developed an experimental model to examine the impacts of extended unpredictable stress on telomerase activity in male rats.

Author(s): 
Beery, Annaliese K.
Lin, Jue
Biddle, Joshua S.
Francis, Darlene D.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Epel, Elissa S.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Psychoanalysis

The various factors which seem to be important in the creative child with extraordinary potential include: A good biologic endowment, often with high intelligence and a correlation between special sensory sensitivities and other physical requirements to implement the special interest. There is also sometimes the capacity to utilize or else compensate for deficit. The fostering of interests by a parent or interested adult. Specific kinds of ongoing encouragement. Sometimes there is self-selection of interest by the child. The child must feel valued and loved.

Author(s): 
Shainess, N.
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Resolution of a critical organizational problem requires the use of carefully selected techniques. This is the work of a management consultant: facilitating a business change process in an organizational setting. Here, an account is provided of a practitioner's reflections on one such case study that demonstrates a structure for a business change process. The reflective account highlights certain affective states and social behaviors that were extracted from participants during the business change process.

Author(s): 
Yeats, Rowena M.
Yeats, Martyn F.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

To clarify the behavioral profiles of 9 feline purebreds, 2 Persian subbreeds and the Japanese domestic cat, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 67 small-animal veterinarians. We found significant differences among breeds in all behavioral traits examined except for "inappropriate elimination". In addition, sexual differences were observed in certain behaviors, including "aggression toward cats", "general activity", "novelty-seeking", and "excitability".

Author(s): 
Takeuchi, Yukari
Mori, Yuji
Publication Title: 
Journal of Adolescence

There is some evidence that adolescent romantic involvement is associated with delinquent behaviour. One aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether this holds for romantic relationships deemed important by the participants. A second aim was to test whether this association was stronger for adolescents with pre-existing delinquent behaviour and personality traits of impulsivity and thrill seeking (delinquency propensity). Sex differences also were examined. Participants were 686 7th and 8th grade students who completed three assessments over three years.

Author(s): 
Eklund, Jenny M.
Kerr, Margaret
Stattin, HÂkan
Publication Title: 
The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry: The Official Journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry

OBJECTIVES: To detach themselves from their family of origin, adolescents need to develop proactive behaviour which includes increased risk-taking and novelty seeking. These behaviours may be attributable both to developmental issues and to hypomanic-like stages. Since there is a lack of research focusing on hypomania in adolescents, the aim of the study was to compare hypomania scores of adolescents with those of adult outpatients suffering from bipolar II disorders, and to investigate possible gender-related differences.

Author(s): 
Brand, Serge
Angst, Jules
Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

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