BACKGROUND: There has been recent interest in the possibility that epigenetic mechanisms might contribute to the transgenerational transmission of stress-induced vulnerability. Here, we focused on possible paternal transmission with the social defeat stress paradigm. METHODS: Adult male mice exposed to chronic social defeat stress or control nondefeated mice were bred with normal female mice, and their offspring were assessed behaviorally for depressive- and anxiety-like measures. Plasma levels of corticosterone and vascular endothelial growth factor were also assayed.
East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists = Dong Ya Jing Shen Ke Xue Zhi: Xianggang Jing Shen Ke Yi Xue Yuan Qi Kan
Anticipation is a phenomenon in which successive generations within a family experience an earlier age of onset and a more severe form of a given illness. It has been observed in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including bipolar disorder. The molecular basis of anticipation involves trinucleotide repeat expansions in genes, but this has not been conclusively demonstrated in bipolar disorder. The histories of 3 father-son pairs are presented.
The clinical features of depressive illnesses in five boys aged 14 and 15 years are described. The early stages of the illnesses were not noticed by others. Each made serious suicide attempts which resulted in their hospitalization. After this, a depressive state was revealed in each case, which in its depth and persistence was very similar to the major depressive illnesses of adults. Aetiological factors are discussed.
With the help of clinical material obtained from two male patients in therapy at the same time, the concept of the loving father is examined. Both patients presented with a fear of being homosexual. It gradually became clear during the therapy that both of them were searching for a loving father.
Attitudes of 104 female college students from divorced and intact families were compared. Parental divorce was found to have long-term effects on young women's expectations about their futures in relation to men, work, and marriage. However, these effects were not found to be closely related to the nature of the relationships they had with their fathers following the divorce.
This study examines the relationship between late adolescents' identity status and their memories of their relationships to their parents. One hundred male and female undergraduates completed two questionnaires. The first assessed subjects' retrospective perceptions of their affective relationships with parents across five age periods: 1 to 5 years, 5 to 10 years, 10 to 15 years, 15 to 20 years, and the present. The second questionnaire, the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, assessed subjects' current identity status.
The "personal characteristics" and "extreme event" hypotheses have been proposed as alternative explanations for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among combat veterans. The person-event interaction model attempts to integrate both perspectives by hypothesizing that premilitary individual vulnerability characteristics play a greater role in influencing risk of PTSD or PTSD symptom severity at lower than at higher levels of exposure to traumatic combat stressors.
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science
The study tested Bowlby's hypothesis that experiencing the poor relating of parents in childhood predisposes the individual to poor relating in adult life. Data were drawn from two community samples: a younger sample of 25-34-year-old married women, and an older one of 40-49-year-old women. Data were also drawn from the husbands of the women in the younger sample. It focused on the single childhood variable of the recollection of poor maternal care.
In this study 212 high school students from different familial configurations were compared regarding their descriptions of themselves and their parents, as well as how their parents interacted with each other. Findings revealed that fathers' ratings or evaluations, but not mothers' ratings or the students' self-ratings, suffered in the wake of divorce. Regarding perceived "loving" actions by parents, however, students from intact families clearly had an advantage over their counterparts from reconstituted, divorced, and single-parent families.