Fatty Acid Desaturases

Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Nutrition
Author(s): 
Emken, E. A.
Publication Title: 
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids

GLUT-4 (glucose transporter) receptor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukins-6 (IL-6), daf-genes and PPARs (peroxisomal proliferation activator receptors) play a role in the development of insulin resistance syndrome and associated conditions. But, the exact interaction between these molecules/factors and the mechanism(s) by which they produce insulin resistance syndrome is not clear.

Author(s): 
Das, Undurti N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Lipid Research

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) orchestrate immunity and inflammation through their capacity to be converted to potent inflammatory mediators. We assessed associations of FADS gene cluster polymorphisms and fasting serum PUFA concentrations in a fully ascertained, geographically isolated founder population of European descent. Concentrations of 22 PUFAs were determined by gas chromatography, of which ten fatty acids and five ratios defining FADS1 and FADS2 activity were tested for genetic association against 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 224 individuals.

Author(s): 
Mathias, Rasika A.
Vergara, Candelaria
Gao, Li
Rafaels, Nicholas
Hand, Tracey
Campbell, Monica
Bickel, Carol
Ivester, Priscilla
Sergeant, Susan
Barnes, Kathleen C.
Chilton, Floyd H.
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Nutrition

Over the past 50 years, increases in dietary n-6 PUFA, such as linoleic acid, have been hypothesised to cause or exacerbate chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study examines an individual's innate capacity to synthesise n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) with respect to the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) locus in Americans of African and European descent with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome.

Author(s): 
Sergeant, Susan
Hugenschmidt, Christina E.
Rudock, Megan E.
Ziegler, Julie T.
Ivester, Priscilla
Ainsworth, Hannah C.
Vaidya, Dhananjay
Case, L. Douglas
Langefeld, Carl D.
Freedman, Barry I.
Bowden, Donald W.
Mathias, Rasika A.
Chilton, Floyd H.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are essential for brain structure, development, and function, and adequate dietary quantities of LC-PUFAs are thought to have been necessary for both brain expansion and the increase in brain complexity observed during modern human evolution. Previous studies conducted in largely European populations suggest that humans have limited capacity to synthesize brain LC-PUFAs such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from plant-based medium chain (MC) PUFAs due to limited desaturase activity.

Author(s): 
Mathias, Rasika A.
Fu, Wenqing
Akey, Joshua M.
Ainsworth, Hannah C.
Torgerson, Dara G.
Ruczinski, Ingo
Sergeant, Susan
Barnes, Kathleen C.
Chilton, Floyd H.
Publication Title: 
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids

Molecular regulation of fatty acid desaturase (Fads) gene expression by dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during early post-natal period, when the demand for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is very high, has not been well defined. The objective of the current study was to determine regulation of liver Fads1, Fads2 and Fads3 classical (CS) and alternative transcripts (AT) expression by dietary ARA and DHA, within the physiological range present in human breast milk, in suckling piglets.

Author(s): 
Wijendran, Vasuki
Downs, Ian
Srigley, Cynthia Tyburczy
Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.
Park, Woo Jung
Blank, Bryant S.
Zimmer, J. Paul
Butt, C. M.
Salem, Norman
Brenna, J. Thomas
Publication Title: 
Journal of Lipid Research

Delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases (D5D and D6D) are key enzymes in endogenous synthesis of long-chain PUFAs. In this sample of healthy subjects (n = 310), genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs174537, rs174561, and rs3834458 in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster were strongly associated with proportions of LC-PUFAs and desaturase activities estimated in plasma and erythrocytes.

Author(s): 
Al-Hilal, Maryam
Alsaleh, Aseel
Maniou, Zoitsa
Lewis, Fiona J.
Hall, Wendy L.
Sanders, Thomas A. B.
O'Dell, Sandra D.
MARINA study team
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with elevated plasma triacylglycerol concentrations and reduced HDL is improved by both caloric restriction and reduced carbohydrate consumption. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the molecular pathways responsive to both caloric restriction and dietary composition within adipose tissue by monitoring transcriptional expression.

Author(s): 
Mangravite, Lara M.
Dawson, Kevin
Davis, Ryan R.
Gregg, Jeffrey P.
Krauss, Ronald M.
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