Fatty Acids, Unsaturated

Publication Title: 
Medical Hypotheses

Dietary changes a hundred years ago in Europe, America and Australia were needed to feed their growing industrial populations. By 1909 margarines were first made by the hydrogenation of marine oils and, later, vegetable oils as a substitute for butter, thereby introducing saturated fats. The demise of the highly nutritious herring and its oil's hydrogenation into margarines seems to have coincided with a big increase in coronary heart disease (CHD).

Author(s): 
Walsh, G. P.
Publication Title: 
Trends in Neurosciences

Aging is characterized by decrements in maximum function and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations, which are best observed in organs such as the brain that contain post-mitotic cells. Oxygen radicals are increasingly considered responsible for part of these aging changes. Comparative studies of animals with different aging rates have shown that the rate of mitochondrial oxygen radical generation is directly related to the steady-state level of oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and is inversely correlated with maximum longevity in higher vertebrates.

Author(s): 
Barja, Gustavo
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)
Author(s): 
Payne, Anthony G.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Recent evidence suggested a protective role of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intakes against several chronic diseases and, therefore, an increased human longevity. After a median follow-up of 8.5 years, we investigated the possible role of MUFA, PUFA, and other selected food groups in protecting against all-causes mortality in a population-based, prospective study, conducted in one of the eight centers of the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging (ILSA), Casamassima, Bari, Italy.

Author(s): 
Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
D'Introno, Alessia
Colacicco, Anna M.
Capurso, Cristiano
Palasciano, Rosa
Capurso, Sabrina
Torres, Francesco
Capurso, Antonio
Panza, Francesco
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
Author(s): 
Panza, Francesco
D'Introno, Alessia
Colacicco, Anna M.
Gadaleta, Annamaria
Capurso, Antonio
Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
Capurso, Cristiano
Del Parigi, Angelo
Publication Title: 
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis: JTH

The consumption of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (PUFA) is considered to protect against cardiovascular disease and promote longevity following a heart attack. Historically, research in this area was fuelled by compelling reports of the cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 PUFA in select populations and cultures. More recent studies, in wider populations, suggest discordant findings: differences that are difficult to reconcile as the mechanism of action of omega-3 PUFA are poorly understood.

Author(s): 
Patel, J. V.
Tracey, I.
Hughes, E. A.
Lip, G. Y.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology

Trans-fatty acids (TFAs) enter the diet through industrial processes and can cause adverse human health effects. The present study was aimed to examine the effects of dietary cis- and trans-fatty acids on the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Cis- or trans-18:1n9 triglycerides (25 ?M) caused no apparent changes in the numbers of viable progeny of wild-type N2 animals. However, in fat-3 mutants lacking delta-6-desaturase, the trans-isomer caused modest decreases in lifespan and progeny after three generations.

Author(s): 
Reisner, Kaja
Lehtonen, Marko
Storvik, Markus
Jantson, Tanel
Lakso, Merja
Callaway, J. C.
Wong, Garry
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Dietary guidelines generally recommend avoiding a high-fat diet. However, the relationship between fat subtypes and mortality remains unclear especially in a population with a relatively low intake of fat. We aimed to prospectively examine the relationship between dietary fat intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese community. In 1992, a total of 28,356 residents of Takayama, Japan, without cancer, stroke, or coronary heart disease, responded to a validated 169-item FFQ. We identified 4616 deaths during a 16-y follow-up.

Author(s): 
Nagata, Chisato
Nakamura, Kozue
Wada, Keiko
Oba, Shino
Tsuji, Michiko
Tamai, Yuya
Kawachi, Toshiaki
Publication Title: 
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

A consistent supply of healthy tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is necessary for the development of novel management strategies targeting this pest. After being in culture for several years, a substantial portion of a tarnished plant bug colony was found to be infected with a Nosema (Microsporidia) species. Studies were subsequently undertaken to evaluate the impact of Nosema infection on tarnished plant bug productivity and to test the efficacy of fumagillin to treat this infection.

Author(s): 
Musser, Fred R.
Knighten, Kathy S.
Self, Sarah R.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

Schizophrenia, autism and depression do not inherit by Mendel's law, and the search for a genetic basis seems unsuccessful. Schizophrenia and autism relate to low birth weight and pregnancy complications, which are associated with developmental adaptations by "programming". Epigenetics might constitute the basis of programming and depend on folate status and one-carbon metabolism in general.

Author(s): 
Muskiet, Frits A. J.
Kemperman, Ramses F. J.

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