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Publication Title: 
Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the processing time and neuromuscular delay required to extract and process sensory information from the ankle in order to coordinate an upper extremity movement sequence. METHODS: Nineteen able-bodied subjects were tested on their ability to perform a motor task that involved extension of their left index finger when their left ankle was passively plantar flexed at random velocities through a predetermined target angle. RESULTS: We found that the able-bodied subjects were able to adjust their finger responses up to ankle velocities of 70 degrees /s (300 ms).

Author(s): 
Shields, Richard K.
Madhavan, Sangeetha
Cole, Keith R.
Brostad, Jared D.
Demeulenaere, Jeanne L.
Eggers, Christopher D.
Otten, Patrick H.
Publication Title: 
NestlÈ Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme

The focus here is on research involving long-term calorie restriction (CR) to prevent or delay the incidence of the metabolic syndrome with age. The current societal environment is marked by overabundant accessibility of food coupled with a strong trend to reduced physical activity, both leading to the development of a constellation of disorders including central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension (metabolic syndrome). Prolonged CR has been shown to extend median and maximal lifespan in a variety of lower species (yeast, worms, fish, rats, and mice).

Author(s): 
Ravussin, Eric
Redman, Leanne M.
Publication Title: 
NestlÈ Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme

The focus here is on research involving long-term calorie restriction (CR) to prevent or delay the incidence of the metabolic syndrome with age. The current societal environment is marked by overabundant accessibility of food coupled with a strong trend to reduced physical activity, both leading to the development of a constellation of disorders including central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension (metabolic syndrome). Prolonged CR has been shown to extend median and maximal lifespan in a variety of lower species (yeast, worms, fish, rats, and mice).

Author(s): 
Ravussin, Eric
Redman, Leanne M.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Psychology

Two experiments tested the hypothesis that self-evaluation can serve as a source of interpersonal attitudes. In the first study, self-evaluation was manipulated by means of false feedback. A subsequent learning phase demonstrated that the co-occurrence of the self with another individual influenced the evaluation of this previously neutral target. Whereas evaluative self-target similarity increased under conditions of negative self-evaluation, an opposite effect emerged in the positive self-evaluation group.

Author(s): 
Walther, Eva
Trasselli, Claudia
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Three experiments tested whether empathy evokes egoistic motivation to share vicariously in the victim's joy at improvement (the empathic-joy hypothesis) instead of altruistic motivation to increase the victim's welfare (the empathy-altruism hypothesis). In Experiment 1, Ss induced to feel either low or high empathy for a young woman in need were given a chance to help her. Some believed that if they helped they would receive feedback about her improvement; others did not.

Author(s): 
Batson, C. D.
Batson, J. G.
Slingsby, J. K.
Harrell, K. L.
Peekna, H. M.
Todd, R. M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Applied Psychology

In 2 experimental studies, the authors hypothesized that the performance of altruistic citizenship behavior in a work setting would enhance the favorability of men's (but not women's) evaluations and recommendations, whereas the withholding of altruistic citizenship behavior would diminish the favorability of women's (but not men's) evaluations and recommendations. Results supported the authors' predictions.

Author(s): 
Heilman, Madeline E.
Chen, Julie J.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Psychology (London, England: 1953)

Human infants as young as 14 to 18 months of age help others attain their goals, for example, by helping them to fetch out-of-reach objects or opening cabinets for them. They do this irrespective of any reward from adults (indeed external rewards undermine the tendency), and very likely with no concern for such things as reciprocation and reputation, which serve to maintain altruism in older children and adults. Humans' nearest primate relatives, chimpanzees, also help others instrumentally without concrete rewards.

Author(s): 
Warneken, Felix
Tomasello, Michael
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

Mental health research may pose a risk to those who participate in it, especially for potentially vulnerable groups such as those diagnosed with schizophrenia. The current study aimed to investigate the subjective experience of research participation in this group. Seventy-nine individuals with diagnoses of schizophrenia spectrum disorders who had taken part in research looking at suicide were asked to provide feedback about their experiences. Responses were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods.

Author(s): 
Taylor, Peter James
Awenat, Yvonne
Gooding, Patricia
Johnson, Judith
Pratt, Daniel
Wood, Alex
Tarrier, Nicholas
Publication Title: 
Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience

To date, the interplay betwexen neurophysiological and individual difference factors in altruistic punishment has been little understood. To examine this issue, 45 individuals participated in a Dictator Game with punishment option while the feedback-related negativity (FRN) was derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Unlike previous EEG studies on the Dictator Game, we introduced a third party condition to study the effect of fairness norm violations in addition to employing a first person perspective.

Author(s): 
Mothes, Hendrik
Enge, Sˆren
Strobel, Alexander
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Psychology (London, England: 1953)
Author(s): 
Barber, T. X.
Calverley, D. S.

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