Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
BACKGROUND: The influence of acupuncture on female fertility is of interest to people in clinical practice and acupuncture researchers. Despite developing research in the field, there is a marked absence of research defining an adequate treatment to support and treat women experiencing delays in conceiving.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the theoretical and methodologic rationales for the use of sham acupuncture controls in trials of adjuvant acupuncture for in vitro fertilization (IVF), and to identify the drawbacks of using a sham acupuncture control that may have its own effects on the pregnancy outcome. BACKGROUND: Acupuncture has typically been tested in trials that evaluate subjective, patient-reported outcomes such as pain. Ratings of pain and similar subjective states can be strongly influenced by respondents' prejudgments, preferences, and expectations about treatment benefits.
Women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) commonly use adjunctive therapies to improve IVF outcomes and reduce stress, anxiety and depression. Among these acupuncture is a popular choice. Despite 40 clinical trials and 9 systematic reviews investigating the efficacy of acupuncture for improving IVF outcomes, evidence-based guidelines are difficult to devise. The methodology used in the clinical trials does not closely resemble the use of acupuncture in real world acupuncture clinics, limiting the applicability of this research.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is expensive, time consuming, and the most successful treatment of fertility; however, in general the cumulative chance of having a live birth with the treatment is still around 40%. Many couples still remain unsuccessful after several IVF attempts, causing deep impact on quality of life, and each failed cycle causing a financial burden. Several adjuvant therapies have been used along with IVF to increase the pregnancy rates for women with repeated implantation failure.
Our interest in development of hyaluronidase inhibitors as male antifertility agents led to identification of Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) plant with hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibitory activity of human spermatozoa ( approximately 93% inhibition) and rat caudal epididymal spermatozoa ( approximately 86% inhibition) in vitro at 30 mg/ml.
Menopause is the final step in the process referred to as ovarian ageing. The age related decrease in follicle numbers dictates the onset of cycle irregularity and the final cessation of menses. The parallel decay in oocyte quality contributes to the gradual decline in fertility and the final occurrence of natural sterility. Endocrine changes mainly relate to the decline in the negative feedback from ovarian factors at the hypothalamo-pituitary unit.
Dietary restriction (DR) has been used for decades to retard aging in rodents, but its mechanism of action remains an enigma. A principal roadblock has been that DR affects many different processes, making it difficult to distinguish cause and effect. To address this problem, we applied a quantitative genetics approach utilizing the ILSXISS series of mouse recombinant inbred strains. Across 42 strains, mean female lifespan ranged from 380 to 1070days on DR (fed 60% of ad libitum [AL]) and from 490 to 1020days on an AL diet.
American Journal of Human Biology: The Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Frontier populations provide exceptional opportunities to test the hypothesis of a trade-off between fertility and longevity. In such populations, mechanisms favoring reproduction usually find fertile ground, and if these mechanisms reduce longevity, demographers should observe higher postreproductive mortality among highly fertile women.
BACKGROUND: Ayurveda represents the traditional medicine system of India. Since mechanistic details of therapy in terms of current biology are not available in Ayurvedic literature, modern scientific studies are necessary to understand its major concepts and procedures. It is necessary to examine effects of the whole Ayurvedic formulations rather than their "active" components as is done in most current studies.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
We determined whether size, an indirect measure of teneral energy reserves, modifies the fitness advantage (sigma survival x egg production/female/day) conferred to female Aedes aegypti (L.) maintained on human blood over cohorts fed human blood plus sugar. Different sized females were obtained by rearing them at different larval densities and with different amounts of food per larva. Each female in 4 treatment groups of 23 mosquitoes each was maintained in a separate cage.