Fertility

Publication Title: 
Endocrine Reviews

Menopause is the final step in the process referred to as ovarian ageing. The age related decrease in follicle numbers dictates the onset of cycle irregularity and the final cessation of menses. The parallel decay in oocyte quality contributes to the gradual decline in fertility and the final occurrence of natural sterility. Endocrine changes mainly relate to the decline in the negative feedback from ovarian factors at the hypothalamo-pituitary unit.

Author(s): 
Broekmans, F. J.
Soules, M. R.
Fauser, B. C.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Dietary restriction (DR) has been used for decades to retard aging in rodents, but its mechanism of action remains an enigma. A principal roadblock has been that DR affects many different processes, making it difficult to distinguish cause and effect. To address this problem, we applied a quantitative genetics approach utilizing the ILSXISS series of mouse recombinant inbred strains. Across 42 strains, mean female lifespan ranged from 380 to 1070days on DR (fed 60% of ad libitum [AL]) and from 490 to 1020days on an AL diet.

Author(s): 
Rikke, Brad A.
Liao, Chen-Yu
McQueen, Matthew B.
Nelson, James F.
Johnson, Thomas E.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Human Biology: The Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

Frontier populations provide exceptional opportunities to test the hypothesis of a trade-off between fertility and longevity. In such populations, mechanisms favoring reproduction usually find fertile ground, and if these mechanisms reduce longevity, demographers should observe higher postreproductive mortality among highly fertile women.

Author(s): 
Gagnon, Alain
Smith, Ken R.
Tremblay, Marc
VÈzina, HÈlËne
ParÈ, Paul-Philippe
Desjardins, Bertrand
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Ayurveda represents the traditional medicine system of India. Since mechanistic details of therapy in terms of current biology are not available in Ayurvedic literature, modern scientific studies are necessary to understand its major concepts and procedures. It is necessary to examine effects of the whole Ayurvedic formulations rather than their "active" components as is done in most current studies.

Author(s): 
Dwivedi, Vibha
Anandan, E. M.
Mony, Rajesh S.
Muraleedharan, T. S.
Valiathan, M. S.
Mutsuddi, Mousumi
Lakhotia, Subhash C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association

We determined whether size, an indirect measure of teneral energy reserves, modifies the fitness advantage (sigma survival x egg production/female/day) conferred to female Aedes aegypti (L.) maintained on human blood over cohorts fed human blood plus sugar. Different sized females were obtained by rearing them at different larval densities and with different amounts of food per larva. Each female in 4 treatment groups of 23 mosquitoes each was maintained in a separate cage.

Author(s): 
Naksathit, A. T.
Scott, T. W.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Regression analyses of primate life spans on recently revised female body and brain masses of Old World primates predict a human life span of between 72 years and 91 years-estimates that exceed the age of human menopause (and prior estimates) by well over 20 years. The life spans predicted from body and brain sizes in the early Homo suggest that postreproductive life spans predate Homo sapiens Among anthropoid primates, residual longevity after body and brain effects are controlled is greatest for Homo and for the New World monkeys of the genus Cebus.

Author(s): 
Judge, D. S.
Carey, J. R.
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

Some animals live in environments in which the food supply fluctuates. When it is scarce these animals do not breed, but invest resources into survival until food is again available, and they can reproduce. Under these circumstances the lifespan can be increased, just as it is after calorie restriction. Other animals have a fairly constant food supply, and it is predicted that these would not have an extended life span if subjected to calorie restriction. Hibernation is a natural form of calorie restriction, and in some cases may lengthen lifespan.

Author(s): 
Holliday, Robin
Publication Title: 
Pakistan journal of biological sciences: PJBS

Neem leaf dust and a commercial formulation of neem were tested on adult Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to determine their effects on the longevity, fecundity and ovarian development. Different combinations of neem leaf dust and a commercial formulation of a neem compound incorporated with sugar solution and adult rearing diets were tested. The Laboratory tests showed that ingestion of neem can significantly reduced the longevity and fertility of both the fly species.

Author(s): 
Khan, Mahfuza
Aftab Hossain, M.
Saidul Islam, M.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Human Biology: The Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

The grandmother hypothesis (GH) of Hawkes et al. ([1998]: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 1336-1339) finds that selection for lower adult mortality and greater longevity allow for the evolution of prolonged growth in human beings. In contrast, other researchers propose that the evolution of the human childhood and adolescent stages of life history prolonged the growth period and allowed for greater biological resilience and longevity compared with apes. In this article, the GH model is reanalyzed using new values for some of its key variables.

Author(s): 
Bogin, Barry
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Dietary restriction (DR) has been used for decades to retard aging in rodents, but its mechanism of action remains an enigma. A principal roadblock has been that DR affects many different processes, making it difficult to distinguish cause and effect. To address this problem, we applied a quantitative genetics approach utilizing the ILSXISS series of mouse recombinant inbred strains. Across 42 strains, mean female lifespan ranged from 380 to 1070days on DR (fed 60% of ad libitum [AL]) and from 490 to 1020days on an AL diet.

Author(s): 
Rikke, Brad A.
Liao, Chen-Yu
McQueen, Matthew B.
Nelson, James F.
Johnson, Thomas E.

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