Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) occurs predominantly after the age of 50 years but is not easy to distinguish from late onset insulin-dependent diabetes. It is likely that misclassification is rare in a Caucasian population. Whilst NIDDM is widely believed to be genetically determined, recent epidemiological observations have consistently revealed statistical associations between indices of poor fetal and infant growth with susceptibility to loss of glucose tolerance in adult life.
The epidemiological links observed between fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance in adult life that led to the formulation of the "thrifty phenotype" hypothesis have been confirmed by others in widely differing populations. The proposed nutritional basis of these links has been tested in an animal model in which rat dams were fed an isocaloric low-protein diet and the postweaning normally fed offspring were studied.
Epidemiological studies have revealed strong and reproducible links between indices of poor fetal, and possibly infant, growth and susceptibility to the development of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance syndrome in adult life. The 'thrifty phenotype' hypothesis has been proposed to explain these associations.
Many epidemiological studies have now shown a strongly increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in adults who as neonates showed signs of poor early (fetal and early postnatal) growth. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis was proposed to provide a conceptual and experimentally testable basis of these relationships. We have used protein restriction of rat dams, as a means to test this hypothesis. In vivo and in vitro studies of the growth-restricted offspring of such pregnancies have provided findings showing remarkable parallels with the human conditions.
BACKGROUND: We sought to identify and characterize predictors of poor fetal growth among variables extracted from perinatal medical records to gain insight into potential etiologic mechanisms. In this process we reevaluated a previously observed association between poor fetal growth and maternal psychiatric disease. METHODS: We evaluated 449 deliveries of >36†weeks gestation that occurred between 9/2008 and 9/2010 at the Women and Infants Hospital in Providence Rhode Island.
Since Rita Levi Montalcini and Stanley Cohen received Nobel Prize for their pioneering work on nerve growth factor (NGF), its role in female reproductive system has been reinforced in last two decades. The neurotrophins (NT) including nerve growth factor (NGF) are a family of related growth factors and their respective receptor tyrosine kinases that are of major importance in the regulation of neuronal survival and differentiation.
The pre- and postnatal effects of the combined oral administration of propoxyphene (PPX, 100 mg/kg/day) and chlordiazepoxide (CDX, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in Wistar rats in separate experiments by dosing on days 6 through 21 of pregnancy. The controls were given either an aqueous gum tragacanth solution or PPX alone. Maternal toxicity, as evident from death or reduction in body weight, was observed in dams given PPX + 100 mg/kg/day CDX, although previous studies with CDX alone showed no maternal toxicity .
The clinical application of hypnosis has been effective in obstetrics. Intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios are dreaded complications of pregnancy that may result in preterm deliveries causing increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. In this longitudinal prospective study, clinical hypnosis was used in addition to the conventional medical management in such pregnancies. The perinatal outcome was compared with the control group wherein hypnosis was not used.
OBJECTIVE: To identify whether prenatal depression is a risk factor for fetal growth restriction. METHODS: Midgestation (18-20 weeks GA) estimated fetal weight and urine cortisol and birthweight and gestational age at birth data were collected on a sample of 40 depressed and 40 non-depressed women. Estimated fetal weight and birthweight data were then used to compute fetal growth rates. RESULTS: Depressed women had a 13% greater incidence of premature delivery (Odds ratio (OR)=2.61) and 15% greater incidence of low birthweight (OR=4.75) than non-depressed women.