A low second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been related to high testosterone levels and to markers of high status. In a social dilemma context status can be obtained either by acting egoistically (i.e. not contributing one's share) or by acting altruistically (i.e. contributing more than one's fair share). We therefore predicted that a low 2D:4D would be associated with high levels of egoism and altruism and low levels of common cooperativeness (i.e. contributing exactly one's fair share).
Gene-culture co-evolution emphasizes the joint role of culture and genes for the emergence of altruistic and cooperative behaviors and behavioral genetics provides estimates of their relative importance. However, these approaches cannot assess which biological traits determine altruism or how. We analyze the association between altruism in adults and the exposure to prenatal sex hormones, using the second-to-fourth digit ratio. We find an inverted U-shaped relation for left and right hands, which is very consistent for men and less systematic for women.
The following dimensions of Raynaud's disease are reviewed: (a) etiological factors, particularly those of a psychological nature, (b) proposed biological mechanisms of vasospastic episodes, (c) efficacy of pharmaceutical and surgical interventions, and (d) use of biofeedback as therapy. Emotional stress appears to be wholly sufficient to induce vasopastic episodes in victims. Some authors further hypothesize that suppressed anger may be involved in the phenomenon.
Forty-eight children, aged 5 to 15 years, were tested for their ability to raise and lower their index finger temperature with self-hypnosis and/or biofeedback. Group A (self-hypnosis only) and group B (self-hypnosis with biofeedback) were children who had previous successful experience with self-hypnosis (eg, for the treatment of enuresis, pain, asthma, or obesity). Group C (biofeedback only) were children with no experience with hypnosis. All three groups showed significant success with warming and cooling.
Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, Und Verwandte Gebiete
In 12 patients with systemic sclerosis the influence of hypnosis and autogenic training on the acral blood circulation and the coping with the disease was investigated in a pilot study. In the first step significant increases in the skin temperature of the finger (mean +/- SD: 3.9 +/- 1.2 degrees C) could be found after relaxation hypnosis. In the second step six patients (study group) gained experience with autogenic training. The other six patients served as control group.
The goal of the present study was to investigate whether suggestions for cold or warmth during hypnosis affect fingertip skin temperature. Hypnosis without specific suggestions for cold or warmth ('neutral hypnosis') caused a drop in respiration frequency, however, pulse rate, fingertip skin temperature, and electrodermal activity were not affected. The cold and warmth suggestions decreased and increased fingertip skin temperature, respectively. Compared with the neutral trance phase, the other three autonomic variables measured were also affected by suggestions for cold.
The aim of the experiment was to study whether the activity of the primary sensory-motor (S1/M1), supplementary motor (SMA) and pre-motor (PMA) areas during fingers movement is modulated by hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis. Cortical activity was studied through functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during a finger-to-thumb opposition task in awake (Highs) and hypnotized highly susceptible (H-Highs) as well as in awake non susceptible subjects (Lows).