Fish Oils

Publication Title: 
Medical Hypotheses

Dietary changes a hundred years ago in Europe, America and Australia were needed to feed their growing industrial populations. By 1909 margarines were first made by the hydrogenation of marine oils and, later, vegetable oils as a substitute for butter, thereby introducing saturated fats. The demise of the highly nutritious herring and its oil's hydrogenation into margarines seems to have coincided with a big increase in coronary heart disease (CHD).

Author(s): 
Walsh, G. P.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

We analyzed ultrastructural changes and markers of fission/fusion in hepatocyte mitochondria from mice submitted to 40% calorie restriction (CR) for 6 months versus ad-libitum-fed controls. To study the effects of dietary fat under CR, animals were separated into three CR groups with soybean oil (also in controls), fish oil, and lard. CR induced differential changes in hepatocyte and mitochondrial size, in the volume fraction occupied by mitochondria, and in the number of mitochondria per hepatocyte.

Author(s): 
Khraiwesh, Husam
LÛpez-DomÌnguez, JosÈ A.
LÛpez-Lluch, Guillermo
Navas, Pl·cido
de Cabo, Rafael
Ramsey, Jon J.
Villalba, JosÈ M.
Gonz·lez-Reyes, JosÈ A.
Publication Title: 
JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association

CONTEXT: Increased dietary intake of marine omega-3 fatty acids is associated with prolonged survival in patients with coronary heart disease. However, the mechanisms underlying this protective effect are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of omega-3 fatty acid blood levels with temporal changes in telomere length, an emerging marker of biological age.

Author(s): 
Farzaneh-Far, Ramin
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa S.
Harris, William S.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Whooley, Mary A.
Publication Title: 
JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association

CONTEXT: Increased dietary intake of marine omega-3 fatty acids is associated with prolonged survival in patients with coronary heart disease. However, the mechanisms underlying this protective effect are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of omega-3 fatty acid blood levels with temporal changes in telomere length, an emerging marker of biological age.

Author(s): 
Farzaneh-Far, Ramin
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa S.
Harris, William S.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Whooley, Mary A.
Publication Title: 
Atherosclerosis

OBJECTIVE: Offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes (OPDs) exhibits endothelial dysfunction (ED) associated with a chronic inflammatory state. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that are beneficial for cardiovascular and metabolic health. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in n-3 PUFA may improve ED in otherwise healthy OPDs. METHODS AND DESIGN: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 50 OPDs.

Author(s): 
Rizza, Stefano
Tesauro, Manfredi
Cardillo, Carmine
Galli, Angelica
Iantorno, Micaela
Gigli, Fabrizio
Sbraccia, Paolo
Federici, Massimo
Quon, Michael J.
Lauro, Davide
Publication Title: 
Journal of Lipid Research

The atheroprotective potential of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) has not yet been fully determined, even in murine models of atherosclerosis. We tested whether ALA-derived, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) could offer atheroprotection in a dose-dependent manner. Apolipoprotein B (ApoB)100/100LDLr-/- mice were fed with diets containing two levels of ALA from flaxseed oil for 16 weeks. Fish oil- and cis-monounsaturated-fat-enriched diets were used as positive and negative controls, respectively.

Author(s): 
Degirolamo, Chiara
Kelley, Kathryn L.
Wilson, Martha D.
Rudel, Lawrence L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

The therapeutic efficacy of individual components of fish oils (FOs) in various human inflammatory diseases still remains unresolved, possibly due to low levels of n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or lower ratio of DHA to EPA. Because FO enriched with DHA (FO-DHA) or EPA (FO-EPA) has become available recently, we investigated their efficacy on survival and inflammatory kidney disease in a well-established animal model of human systemic lupus erythematosus.

Author(s): 
Halade, Ganesh V.
Rahman, Md Mizanur
Bhattacharya, Arunabh
Barnes, Jeffrey L.
Chandrasekar, Bysani
Fernandes, Gabriel
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Clinical trials and epidemiological studies have suggested that dietary fish oil (FO) supplementation can provide an anti-arrhythmic benefit in some patient populations. The underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We wanted to understand how FO supplementation (for 4 weeks) affected the action potential configuration/duration of ventricular myocytes, and the ionic mechanism(s)/molecular basis for these effects. The experiments were conducted on adult rabbits, a widely used animal model for cardiac electrophysiology and pathophysiology.

Author(s): 
Xu, Xulin
Jiang, Min
Wang, Yuhong
Smith, Timothy
Baumgarten, Clive M.
Wood, Mark A.
Tseng, Gea-Ny
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

The inverse relationship between fat in bone marrow and bone mass in the skeleton of aging subjects is well known. However, there is no precise therapy for the treatment of bone marrow adiposity. We investigated the ability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and fish oil (FO), alone or in combination, to modulate bone loss using 12 months old C57Bl/6J mice fed 10% corn oil diet as control or supplemented with 0.5% CLA or 5% FO or 0.5% CLA+5% FO for 6 months.

Author(s): 
Halade, Ganesh V.
Rahman, Md M.
Williams, Paul J.
Fernandes, Gabriel
Publication Title: 
Pharmacological Research: The Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society

Clinical studies suggest that rosiglitazone (RSG) treatment may increase the incidence of heart failure in diabetic patients. In this study, we examined whether a high corn oil diet with RSG treatment in insulin resistant aging mice exerted metabolic and pro-inflammatory effects that stimulate cardiac dysfunction. We also evaluated whether fish oil attenuated these effects. Female C57BL/6J mice (13 months old) were divided into 5 groups: (1) lean control (LC), (2) corn oil, (3) fish oil, (4) corn oil+RSG and (5) fish oil+RSG.

Author(s): 
Halade, Ganesh V.
Williams, Paul J.
Lindsey, Merry L.
Fernandes, Gabriel

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