Fixation, Ocular

Publication Title: 
Psychology and Aging

Despite many studies on the age-related positivity effect and its role in visual attention, discrepancies remain regarding whether full attention is required for age-related differences to emerge. The present study took a new approach to this question by varying the contextual demands of emotion processing. This was done by adding perceptual distractions, such as visual and auditory noise, that could disrupt attentional control. Younger and older participants viewed pairs of happy-neutral and fearful-neutral faces while their eye movements were recorded.

Author(s): 
Noh, Soo Rim
Isaacowitz, Derek M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Psychology

The possibility that Rubin's findings of greater mutual gazing between strong than weak lovers and between strangers could be attributed to the occurrence of more conversation in strong love conditions was tested. Ss were selected from an undergraduate population. Ten strong love couples, determined through the use of Rubin's love scale, were compared to 10 pairs of unacquainted Ss for the amount of mutual eye contact, as well as conversation time and time spent in pure gazing without conversation. It was found that lovers did converse more with each other than with strangers.

Author(s): 
Goldstein, M. A.
Kilroy, M. C.
Van de Voort, D.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Science

Gaze direction is a vital communicative channel through which people transmit information to each other. By signaling the locus of social attention, gaze cues convey information about the relative importance of objects, including other people, in the environment. For the most part, this information is communicated via patterns of gaze direction, with gaze shifts signaling changes in the objects of attention. Noting the relevance of gaze cues in social cognition, we speculated that gaze shifts may modulate people's evaluations of others.

Author(s): 
Mason, Malia F.
Tatkow, Elizabeth P.
Macrae, C. Neil
Publication Title: 
Psychological Science

Reading other people's eyes is a valuable skill during interpersonal interaction. Although a number of studies have investigated visual patterns in relation to the perceiver's interest, intentions, and goals, little is known about eye gaze when it comes to differentiating intentions to love from intentions to lust (sexual desire).

Author(s): 
Bolmont, Mylene
Cacioppo, John T.
Cacioppo, Stephanie
Publication Title: 
Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

Detecting subtle indicators of trustworthiness is highly adaptive for moving effectively amongst social partners. One powerful signal is gaze direction, which individuals can use to inform (or deceive) by looking toward (or away from) important objects or events in the environment. Here, across 5 experiments, we investigate whether implicit learning about gaze cues can influence subsequent economic transactions; we also examine some of the underlying mechanisms.

Author(s): 
Rogers, Robert D.
Bayliss, Andrew P.
Szepietowska, Anna
Dale, Laura
Reeder, Lydia
Pizzamiglio, Gloria
Czarna, Karolina
Wakeley, Judi
Cowen, Phillip J.
Tipper, Steven P.
Publication Title: 
Animal Behaviour
Author(s): 
Gallup, G. G.
Cummings, W. H.
Nash, R. F.
Publication Title: 
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

In our institution we have used antenatal training in self-hypnosis for over three years as a tool to provide relaxation, anxiolysis and analgesia for women in labour. To assess the effects of hypnotherapy, we prospectively collected data related to the use of hypnosis in preparation for childbirth, and compared the birth outcomes of women experiencing antenatal hypnosis with parity and gestational age matched controls. METHODS: Prospective data about women taught self-hypnosis in preparation for childbirth were collected between August 2002 and August 2004.

Author(s): 
Cyna, A. M.
Andrew, M. I.
McAuliffe, G. L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurophysiology

Resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) is widely used to investigate brain networks that exhibit correlated fluctuations. While fcMRI does not provide direct measurement of anatomic connectivity, accumulating evidence suggests it is sufficiently constrained by anatomy to allow the architecture of distinct brain systems to be characterized.

Author(s): 
Van Dijk, Koene R. A.
Hedden, Trey
Venkataraman, Archana
Evans, Karleyton C.
Lazar, Sara W.
Buckner, Randy L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation

Tai Chi (TC) is a comparatively new intervention for peripheral vestibular hypofunction, which is often treated with vestibular rehabilitation (VR). We compared gaze stability (GZS), whole-body stability (WBS) and footfall stability (FFS) during locomotion among 26 people with vestibulopathy (VSP), randomized into two treatment arms (13 TC and 13 VR). Each intervention program was offered for 10 weeks. GZS improved more for VR than for TC, but WBS (and FFS) improved more for TC than for VR.

Author(s): 
McGibbon, Chris A.
Krebs, David E.
Wolf, Steven L.
Wayne, Peter M.
Scarborough, Donna Moxley
Parker, Stephen W.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation

Tai Chi (TC) is a comparatively new intervention for peripheral vestibular hypofunction, which is often treated with vestibular rehabilitation (VR). We compared gaze stability (GZS), whole-body stability (WBS) and footfall stability (FFS) during locomotion among 26 people with vestibulopathy (VSP), randomized into two treatment arms (13 TC and 13 VR). Each intervention program was offered for 10 weeks. GZS improved more for VR than for TC, but WBS (and FFS) improved more for TC than for VR.

Author(s): 
McGibbon, Chris A.
Krebs, David E.
Wolf, Steven L.
Wayne, Peter M.
Scarborough, Donna Moxley
Parker, Stephen W.
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