The peroxisome is functionally integrated into an exquisitely complex network of communicating endomembranes which is only beginning to be appreciated. Despite great advances in identifying essential components and characterizing molecular mechanisms associated with the organelle's biogenesis and function, there is a large gap in our understanding of how peroxisomes are incorporated into metabolic pathways and subcellular communication networks, how they contribute to cellular aging, and where their influence is manifested on the initiation and progression of degenerative disease.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Cellular senescence is a tumor suppression mechanism. We previously reported that CKII downregulation induces senescence in human lung fibroblast IMR-90 and colon cancer HCT116 cells. In this study, potential longevity drugs, including rapamycin, vitamin C, and vitamin E, blocked CKII downregulation-mediated senescence through reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HCT116 cells.
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences: Official Journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Traditionally Boswellia serrata extract is used in the Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In 2002 the EMEA designated Boswellia an orphan drug status for the treatment of peritumoral oedema. Pharmacokinetic studies yielded low plasma concentrations of the active ingredients 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (KBA) and 3-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA). In continuation of the tests investigating the factors limiting bioavailability of boswellic acids, the present study examined the permeability of KBA and AKBA in human Caco-2 cell lines.
Estrogen is a powerful endogenous and exogenous neuroprotective agent in animal models of brain injury, including focal cerebral ischemia. Although this protection has been demonstrated in several different treatment and injury paradigms, it has not been demonstrated in focal cerebral ischemia induced by intraparenchymal endothelin-1 injection, a model with many advantages over other models of experimental focal ischemia. Reproductively mature female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and divided into placebo and estradiol-treated groups.
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) offer a potential alternative for tissue repair and regeneration. We have recently shown that hypoxia stimulates ASCs and enhances the regenerative potential of ASCs, which is beneficial for ASC therapy. In the present study, we further investigated a key mediator and a signal pathway involved in the stimulation of ASC during hypoxia. Culturing ASC in a hypoxic incubator (2% oxygen tension) increased the proliferation and migration, and this was mediated by Akt and ERK pathways.
The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10, and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida ethanol extracts, and that these Echinacea extracts could inhibit the P-glycoprotein transporter in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells.