The neural protein ?-synuclein aggregates both in vivo and in vitro to form insoluble fibrils that are involved in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. We have generated ?-synuclein/fluorescent-protein fusion constructs overexpressed in muscle cells of the nematode, Caenorhabdtis elegans. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) variants, Cerulean (C) or Venus (V), were fused to the C-terminus of human ?-synuclein (S); the resultant fusion genes were designated SV and SC, plus a CV fusion as well as S, C and V singly. The aggregation behavior of the purified fusion proteins (expressed in E.
BACKGROUND: Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine has been abandoned as first- or second-line treatment by most African malaria endemic countries in favour of artemisinin-based combination treatments, but the drug is still used as intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy. However, resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing in the past few years and, although the link between molecular markers and treatment failure has not been firmly established, at least for pregnant women, it is important to monitor such markers.
BACKGROUND: Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua, is recommended as the first-line anti-malarial drug with low toxicity. DHA has been shown to possess promising anticancer activities and induce cancer cell death through apoptotic pathways, although the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. METHODS: In this study, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay was employed to evaluate the survival of DHA-treated ASTC-a-1 cells.
Over 130 mutations to copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) are implicated in the selective death of motor neurons found in 25% of patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite their widespread distribution, ALS mutations appear positioned to cause structural and misfolding defects. Such defects decrease SOD's affinity for zinc, and loss of zinc from SOD is sufficient to induce apoptosis in motor neurons in vitro.
Our recent study has shown that betaA3-crystallin along with betaB1- and betaB2-crystallins were part of high molecular weight complex obtained from young, old, and cataractous lenses suggesting potential interactions between alpha- and beta-crystallins (Srivastava, O. P., Srivastava, K., and Chaves, J. M. (2008) Mol. Vis. 14, 1872-1885). To investigate this further, this study was carried out to determine the interaction sites of betaA3-crystallin with alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins.
The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of truncation of various regions of betaB1-crystallin on its structural properties and stability of heterooligomers formed by wild-type (WT) betaB1 or its deletion mutants with WT betaA3-crystallin.
Estrogens produce biological effects by interacting with two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. Drugs that selectively target ERalpha or ERbeta might be safer for conditions that have been traditionally treated with non-selective estrogens. Several synthetic and natural ERbeta-selective compounds have been identified. One class of ERbeta-selective agonists is represented by ERB-041 (WAY-202041) which binds to ERbeta much greater than ERalpha.
Macrophages are essential components of innate immunity, and apoptosis of these cells impairs mucosal defense to microbes. Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen that infects half of the world population and causes peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. The host inflammatory response fails to eradicate the organism. We have reported that H. pylori induces apoptosis of macrophages by generation of polyamines from ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which is dependent on c-Myc as a transcriptional enhancer.
Model membrane and cellular detergent extraction studies show (n-3) PUFA predominately incorporate into nonrafts; thus, we hypothesized (n-3) PUFA could disrupt nonraft organization. The first objective of this study was to determine whether (n-3) PUFA disrupted nonrafts of EL4 cells, an extension of our previous work in which we discovered an (n-3) PUFA diminished raft clustering.