fMRI

Publication Title: 
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

The brain network governing meditation has been studied using a variety of meditation practices and techniques practices eliciting different cognitive processes (e.g., silence, attention to own body, sense of joy, mantras, etc.). It is very possible that different practices of meditation are subserved by largely, if not entirely, disparate brain networks. This assumption was tested by conducting an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of meditation neuroimaging studies, which assessed 150 activation foci from 24 experiments. Different ALE meta-analyses were carried out.

Author(s): 
Tomasino, Barbara
Fregona, Sara
Skrap, Miran
Fabbro, Franco
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly used in the treatment and prevention of mental health conditions. Despite this, the mechanisms of change for such interventions are only beginning to be understood, with a number of recent studies assessing changes in brain activity. The aim of this systematic review was to assess changes in brain functioning associated with manualised 8-session mindfulness interventions. Searches of PubMed and Scopus databases resulted in 39 papers, 7 of which were eligible for inclusion.

Author(s): 
Young, Katherine S.
van der Velden, Anne Maj
Craske, Michelle G.
Pallesen, Karen Johanne
Fjorback, Lone
Roepstorff, Andreas
Parsons, Christine E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Affective Disorders

BACKGROUND: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent anxiety disorder, but its neurobiological basis has been poorly studied. A few cognitive models have been proposed for understanding GAD development and maintenance. The aim of this study is to review functional Magnetic Resonance Image (fMRI) studies conducted with GAD patients and evaluate if they support and underpin the theoretical cognitive models proposed for this anxiety disorder. METHODS: A literature systematic review was undertaken in PubMed and ISI databases with no time limits.

Author(s): 
Mochcovitch, Marina Dyskant
da Rocha Freire, Rafael Christophe
Garcia, Rafael Ferreira
Nardi, Antonio E.
Publication Title: 
Neurogastroenterology and Motility: The Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence in support of the presence of abnormal central changes (compared to healthy controls) in functional dyspepsia (FD) in addition to the peripheral changes in gastrointestinal tract. PURPOSE: This systematic review aims to provide an integrative understanding of the abnormal functional brain activity, visceral sensation, dyspeptic symptoms, and psychological changes of FD. Electronic and hand searches were conducted to identify functional neuroimaging studies involving FD patients.

Author(s): 
Lee, I.-S.
Wang, H.
Chae, Y.
Preissl, H.
Enck, P.
Publication Title: 
Epigenetics

Many genetic studies report mixed results both for the associations between COMT polymorphisms and schizophrenia and for the effects of COMT variants on common intermediate phenotypes of the disorder. Reasons for this may include small genetic effect sizes and the modulation of environmental influences.

Author(s): 
Walton, Esther
Liu, Jingyu
Hass, Johanna
White, Tonya
Scholz, Markus
Roessner, Veit
Gollub, Randy
Calhoun, Vince D.
Ehrlich, Stefan
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics: The Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics

Genetic factors appear to be highly relevant to predicting differential risk for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a discovery sample, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for PTSD using a small military cohort (Systems Biology PTSD Biomarkers Consortium; SBPBC, N?=?147) that was designed as a case-controlled sample of highly exposed, recently returning veterans with and without combat-related PTSD.

Author(s): 
Almli, Lynn M.
Stevens, Jennifer S.
Smith, Alicia K.
Kilaru, Varun
Meng, Qian
Flory, Janine
Abu-Amara, Duna
Hammamieh, Rasha
Yang, Ruoting
Mercer, Kristina B.
Binder, Elizabeth B.
Bradley, Bekh
Hamilton, Steven
Jett, Marti
Yehuda, Rachel
Marmar, Charles R.
Ressler, Kerry J.
Publication Title: 
Human Brain Mapping

Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been associated with psychopathology and aberrant brain functioning in a plethora of clinical and imaging studies. In contrast, the neurobiological correlates of epigenetic signatures in SLC6A4, such as DNA methylation profiles, have only recently been explored in human brain imaging research. The present study is the first to apply a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging approach to identify changes in brain networks related to SLC6A4 promoter methylation (N=74 healthy individuals).

Author(s): 
Muehlhan, Markus
Kirschbaum, Clemens
Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
Alexander, Nina
Publication Title: 
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry

The neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to stimulate a range of social behaviors. However, recent studies indicate that the effects of intranasal oxytocin are more nuanced than previously thought and that contextual factors and individual characteristics moderate the beneficiary oxytocin effects. In this randomized-controlled trial we examine the influence of intranasally administered oxytocin on neural activity during mind-reading with fMRI, taking into account harsh caregiving experiences as a potential moderator.

Author(s): 
Riem, Madelon M. E.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.
Voorthuis, Alexandra
van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
Publication Title: 
Brain and Behavior

Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as "may all beings be happy," to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation.

Author(s): 
Garrison, Kathleen A.
Scheinost, Dustin
Constable, R. Todd
Brewer, Judson A.
Publication Title: 
Brain and Behavior

Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as "may all beings be happy," to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation.

Author(s): 
Garrison, Kathleen A.
Scheinost, Dustin
Constable, R. Todd
Brewer, Judson A.

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