What are the best dietary practices and farming methods to promote health? The answer may depend on whether one looks at the health of individuals or the health of the planet (planetary health or PH). PH will equate to a healthy ecosphere fostered by dietary/farming practices that are less resource-intense, potentially decreasing starvation and carbon emissions. Best practices also may depend on whether by health one means lack of observable disease (such as obesity, nutritional deficiency, diabetes, or cancer), optimal health (also known as wellness), or longevity.
Nutritional genomics offers a way to optimize human health and the quality of life. It is an attractive endeavor, but one with substantial challenges. It encompasses almost all known aspects of science, ranging from the genomes of humans, plants, and microorganisms, to the highest levels of food science, analytical science, computing, and statistics of large systems, as well as human behavior. This paper describes the underlying biochemistry that is targeted by the principal issues in nutritional genomics, which entails genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics.
The production of genetically modified foods for an increasingly informed and selective consumer requires the coordinated activities of both the companies developing the transgenic food and regulatory authorities to ensure that these foods are at least as safe as the traditional foods they are supplementing in the diet.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
We performed experiments on in vitro digestion of newly expressed proteins by SGF (simulated gastric fluid) and SIF (simulated intestinal fluid) to assess the allergenicity of food components derived from biotechnological modification. For newly expressed proteins, we chose CP4-EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4) and Cry1Ab derived from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain HD-1. The former is expressed in GM-soybeans and the latter is expressed in GM-corns.
Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Empirical examinations of the "social amplification of risk" framework are rare, partly because of the difficulties in predicting when conditions likely to result in amplification effects will occur. This means that it is difficult to examine changes in risk perception that are contemporaneous with increases and/or decreases in social or media discussion of the risks associated with a particular risk event.
Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards but does not assess them. The outcome of the comparative exercise will further guide the safety assessment, which may include (immuno)toxicological and biochemical testing.
[Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
Current and future trends regarding genetically modified (GM) crops and food stuffs were reviewed, with a particular focus on public acceptance and safety assessment. While GM foods, foods derived from biotechnology, are popular with growers and producers, they are still a matter of some concern among consumers. In fact, our recent surveys showed that Japanese consumers had become uneasy about the potential health risks of genetically modified foods.
The genetically modified (GM) crops cultivated at present have new properties of benefit to agriculture. It is expected that in the future GM crops will also be cultivated with more complex genetic modifications that are aimed at improving the nutritional and health value to the consumer. The safety assessment of GM foods before market approval is based on a comparison of the characteristics of the GM food with those of the conventional counterpart. Identified differences are thoroughly tested for their toxicological and nutritional consequences.
This synopsis reviews published in vivo studies on possible health consequences of genetically modified food and feed where the ingredients in question have consisted of genetically modified plant materials. The following, however, have not been taken into consideration:--ingredients consisting of genetically modified microorganisms or parts of animals/fish--ingredients produced by/from genetically modified organisms but without any DNA present--studies on consequences for the environment or biodiversity--in vitro studies or computer simulations.
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
The most important results from the EU-sponsored ENTRANSFOOD Thematic Network project are reviewed, including the design of a detailed step-wise procedure for the risk assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops based on the latest scientific developments, evaluation of topical risk assessment issues, and the formulation of proposals for improved risk management and public involvement in the risk analysis process.