Information on daily nutrient requirements is more complete for farm animals than for horses, pets and man. Very little is known, particularly in man, horses and pets of the relationship between nutrition and longevity. Therefore, a slightly higher intake of essential nutrients would appear to be preferable, the more so as the body can readily remove any surpluses. This also holds true for man and animals in suboptimum living conditions.
In most primate groups emigration of the maturing young of one or the other sex tends to serve as an incest avoidance mechanism. Among most primate species it is the males who change groups. This supports the theory that, in terms of reproductive success, males should compete for mates and females should compete for resources. In hominoids the combination of increased longevity and greater female discrimination in mate selection seems responsible for female emigration. This may relate to the high frequency of patrilocality and male control of resources among human groups.
Some animals live in environments in which the food supply fluctuates. When it is scarce these animals do not breed, but invest resources into survival until food is again available, and they can reproduce. Under these circumstances the lifespan can be increased, just as it is after calorie restriction. Other animals have a fairly constant food supply, and it is predicted that these would not have an extended life span if subjected to calorie restriction. Hibernation is a natural form of calorie restriction, and in some cases may lengthen lifespan.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the linkage between food cost and mortality among older adults. This study considers the hypothesis that greater food expenditure in general, and particularly on more nutritious plant and animal-derived foods, decreases mortality in older adults. METHODS: This study uses the 1999-2000 Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan and follows the cohort until 2008, collecting 24-hr dietary recall data for 1781 participants (874 men and 907 women) aged 65 y or older.
Food insecurity is linked to higher weight gain in pregnancy, as is dietary restraint. We hypothesized that pregnant women exposed to marginal food insecurity, and who reported dietary restraint before pregnancy, will paradoxically show the greatest weight gain. Weight outcomes were defined as total kilograms, observed-to-recommended weight gain ratio, and categorized as adequate, inadequate or excessive weight gain based on 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. A likelihood ratio test assessed the interaction between marginal food insecurity and dietary restraint and found significant.
Despite extensive research on the relationship between social capital and health, the specific pathways through which social capital is related to health have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, research has generally been cross-sectional, particularly in Canada, and hence not clearly attentive to the causal relationship between social capital and health. In this study we have examined the importance of multiple forms of individual social capital for the functional health status of adult Canadians, employing the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS).
The issue of regulating animal care in modern animal production systems and in the research laboratory is discussed from the perspective of an animal scientist with a farm background and 25 years of agricultural experiment station experience. Evidence is presented for a long-term association of humans with (and dependence on) animals, which extends into prehistory far beyond the beginnings of animal domestication some 11,000 years ago.
BACKGROUND: Subsistence norms are part of the "ecosophy" or ecological philosophy of Alaska Native Peoples in the sub-Arctic, such as the Inupiat of Seward Peninsula. This kind of animistic pragmatism is a special source of practical wisdom that spans over thousands of years and which has been instrumental in the IÒupiat's struggle to survive and thrive in harsh and evolving environments.
BACKGROUND: Despite being associated with multiple genetic problems, consanguineous marriages continue to remain extremely prevalent worldwide. Studying the variation of kin preferences in diverse inbred societies may provide some answers to this paradox. AIM: To find the reasons for specific kin choice in different geographical areas of the world. METHOD: We used a set of sociobiological rules (kin altruism, sexuality and inbreeding avoidance) and ecological constraints (e.g. tribal warfare, food availability) that influence human behaviour.