Fourier Analysis

Publication Title: 
Psychological Science

The mechanisms underlying the association between positive emotions and physical health remain a mystery. We hypothesize that an upward-spiral dynamic continually reinforces the tie between positive emotions and physical health and that this spiral is mediated by people's perceptions of their positive social connections. We tested this overarching hypothesis in a longitudinal field experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group that self-generated positive emotions via loving-kindness meditation or to a waiting-list control group.

Author(s): 
Kok, Bethany E.
Coffey, Kimberly A.
Cohn, Michael A.
Catalino, Lahnna I.
Vacharkulksemsuk, Tanya
Algoe, Sara B.
Brantley, Mary
Fredrickson, Barbara L.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Spectral analysis of beat-to-beat variability in electrocardiography is a simple, noninvasive method to analyze sympatho-vagal interaction. The electrocardiogram is analyzed by means of an automatic, autoregressive modeling algorithm that provides a quantitative estimate of R-R interval variability by the computation of power spectral density. Two major peaks are recognizable in this specter: a low-frequency peak (LF, -0.1 Hz), related to the overall autonomic activity (ortho+parasympathetic) and a high-frequency peak (HF, -0.25 Hz), representative of the vagal activity.

Author(s): 
DeBenedittis, G.
Cigada, M.
Bianchi, A.
Signorini, M. G.
Cerutti, S.
Publication Title: 
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)

Hypnotherapeutical technique were often used for control of pain. However, an objective examination of this phenomenon was seldom carried out. The aim of the study was the psychophysiological objectivation of the effect of experimental induced pain and the elimination of pain by means of hypnosis. 22 healthy volunteers (11 female and 11 male) aged between 22 and 35 years participated in the study.

Author(s): 
Grünberger, J.
Linzmayer, L.
Walter, H.
Höfer, C.
Gutierrez-Lobos, K.
Stöhr, H.
Publication Title: 
Neuropsychobiology

Individuals differ in hypnotizability. Information on hypnotizability-related EEG characteristics is controversial and incomplete, particularly on intracerebral source localization and EEG dimensionality. 19-channel, eyes-closed resting EEGs from right-handed, healthy, 8 high- and 4 low-hynotizable subjects (age: 26.7 +/- 7.3 years) were analyzed. Hypnotizability was rated after the subjects' ability to attain a deep hypnotic stage (amnesia).

Author(s): 
Isotani, T.
Lehmann, D.
Pascual-Marqui, R. D.
Kochi, K.
Wackermann, J.
Saito, N.
Yagyu, T.
Kinoshita, T.
Sasada, K.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

Bispectral index (BIS) analysis is a method of electroencephalograph (EEG) analysis based on the interfrequency phase relationships of the EEG, designed to quantify anesthetic hypnosis. The BIS was created after concurrent collection of EEG and clinical data from a large number of patients anesthetized with various drugs over a prolonged period and then performing a Fourier analysis followed by a bispectral calculation. The clinical stages of anesthetic depth are very well demonstrated in etherized patients.

Author(s): 
Bhargava, A. K.
Setlur, R.
Sreevastava, D.
Publication Title: 
Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering

A reliable assessment of the depth of hypnosis during sedation and general anaesthesia using the EEG is a subject of current interest. The Narcotrend Index implemented in the latest version 4.0 of the EEG monitor Narcotrend provides an automatic classification of the EEG on a scale ranging from 100 (awake) to 0 (very deep hypnosis, EEG suppression). The classification algorithms implemented in the EEG monitor Narcotrend are described.

Author(s): 
Schultz, A.
Grouven, U.
Beger, F. A.
Schultz, B.
Publication Title: 
Neuropharmacology

We studied the effects of pentobarbital and antagonists of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), and glycine receptors on extracellular activity in ventrobasal thalamic slices. Pentobarbital at sedative-hypnotic concentration (20 microM) reversibly induced 1-15 Hz oscillations. Sustained oscillations required electrical stimulation of internal capsule, but not elevated temperature or low [Mg2+]. Anesthetic concentration (200 microM) of pentobarbital evoked only transient oscillations. Kynurenate-sensitive glutamate receptors were essential for oscillations.

Author(s): 
Ran, I.
Mathers, D. A.
Puil, E.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis

The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effects of hypnotic pain control on experimental pain by measuring pupil reactions as an objective psycho-physiologic parameter. Twenty-two healthy volunteers (11 female and 11 male) aged between 22 and 35 years participated in the study. Pupil diameter was measured as baseline measurement (i.e., static measurement) in the non-hypnotic and in the hypnotic state. Pupil diameter changes to a standardized pain stimulus were measured in the non-hypnotic and hypnotic state and compared.

Author(s): 
Walter, Henriette
Lesch, Otto Michael
Stöhr, Hans
Grünberger, Josef
Gutierrez-Lobos, Karin
Publication Title: 
The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry: The Official Journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry

Severe forms of dissociation or conversion can lead to events clinically often described as pseudo-seizures. Borderline personality disorder is a clinical condition which is often accompanied by a high susceptibility for dissociation and dissociative states are characterized by memory disturbance and perceptual alterations. We report a case of a patient with a complete anaesthesia, paralysis and amnesia for about 1 h. Within this time period we measured a bispectrum EEG index called BIS. Deepest recorded BIS value was 47.

Author(s): 
Sartorius, Alexander
Schmahl, Christian
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Heart rate and heart-rate variability (HRV) were studied through a set of different methods in high (highs) and low hypnotizable subjects (lows) not receiving any deliberate hypnotic induction in basal conditions (simple relaxation) and during nociceptive-pressor stimulation with and without suggestions of analgesia.

Author(s): 
Santarcangelo, Enrica L.
Carli, Giancarlo
Migliorini, Silvia
Fontani, Giuliano
Varanini, Maurizio
Balocchi, Rita

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