G2 Phase

Publication Title: 
Oncogene

Cell cycle checkpoints and tumor suppressor gene functions appear to be required for the maintenance of a stable genome in proliferating cells. In this study chromosomal destabilization was monitored in relation to telomere structure, lifespan control and G2 checkpoint function. Replicative senescence was inactivated in secondary cultures of human skin fibroblasts by expressing the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 oncoprotein to inactivate p53. Chromosome aberrations were enumerated during in vitro aging of isogenic control (F5neo) and HPV-16E6-expressing (F5E6) fibroblasts.

Author(s): 
Filatov, L.
Golubovskaya, V.
Hurt, J. C.
Byrd, L. L.
Phillips, J. M.
Kaufmann, W. K.
Publication Title: 
Nature

The lengths of human telomeres, which protect chromosome ends from degradation and end fusions, are crucial determinants of cell lifespan. During embryogenesis and in cancer, the telomerase enzyme counteracts telomeric DNA shortening. As shown in cancer cells, human telomerase binds the shelterin component TPP1 at telomeres during the S phase of the cell cycle, and adds ~60 nucleotides in a single round of extension, after which telomerase is turned off by unknown mechanisms.

Author(s): 
Chen, Liuh-Yow
Redon, Sophie
Lingner, Joachim
Publication Title: 
Nature

The lengths of human telomeres, which protect chromosome ends from degradation and end fusions, are crucial determinants of cell lifespan. During embryogenesis and in cancer, the telomerase enzyme counteracts telomeric DNA shortening. As shown in cancer cells, human telomerase binds the shelterin component TPP1 at telomeres during the S phase of the cell cycle, and adds ~60 nucleotides in a single round of extension, after which telomerase is turned off by unknown mechanisms.

Author(s): 
Chen, Liuh-Yow
Redon, Sophie
Lingner, Joachim
Publication Title: 
Journal of the Neurological Sciences

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating illness with no known cure. Nowadays accumulating evidence suggested that the vascular endothelium and chronic hypoperfusion may play important role in pathobiology of AD. The vascular endothelium which regulates the passage of macromolecules and circulating cells from blood to tissue, is a major target of oxidative stress, playing a critical role in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases.

Author(s): 
Leszek, Jerzy
Sochocka, Marta
G?siorowski, Kazimierz
Publication Title: 
Nutrition and Cancer

Withaferin A (WA) is derived from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera that has been safely used for centuries in the Indian Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of various ailments. We now demonstrate that WA treatment causes G2 and mitotic arrest in human breast cancer cells.

Author(s): 
Stan, Silvia D.
Zeng, Yan
Singh, Shivendra V.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Oncology

We previously established a bioassay method to screen for compounds that activate the promoter activity of p21(WAF1/CIP1), a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, in a p53-independent manner. As an activator of p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter activity, we isolated cryptolepine (CLP: 5-methyl indolo (2,3b)-quiniine), an indoloquinoline alkaloid, from the traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant Sida cordifolia. We show here that CLP induces the expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) with growth arrest in p53-mutated human osteosarcoma MG63 cells.

Author(s): 
Matsui, Taka-aki
Sowa, Yoshihiro
Murata, Hiroaki
Takagi, Koichi
Nakanishi, Ryoko
Aoki, Shunji
Yoshikawa, Masayuki
Kobayashi, Motomasa
Sakabe, Tomoya
Kubo, Toshikazu
Sakai, Toshiyuki
Publication Title: 
Nutrition and Cancer

Withaferin A (WA) is derived from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera that has been safely used for centuries in the Indian Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of various ailments. We now demonstrate that WA treatment causes G2 and mitotic arrest in human breast cancer cells.

Author(s): 
Stan, Silvia D.
Zeng, Yan
Singh, Shivendra V.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a promising chemopreventive agent abundantly present in fruits and vegetables that has been shown to promote cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in various malignant cell lines. To determine whether pharmacologic intervention with apigenin has a direct growth inhibitory effect on human prostate tumors implanted in athymic nude mice, we examined cell cycle regulatory molecules as precise molecular targets of apigenin action.

Author(s): 
Shukla, Sanjeev
Gupta, Sanjay
Publication Title: 
Carcinogenesis

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) accounts for 6% of all malignancies in USA and unfortunately the recurrence of secondary primary tumors and resistance against conventional treatments decrease the overall 5 year survival rate in HNSCC patients. Thus, additional approaches are needed to control HNSCC. Here, for the first time, employing human HNSCC Detroit 562 and FaDu cells as well as normal human epidermal keratinocytes, we investigate grape seed extract (GSE) efficacy and associated mechanism in both cell culture and nude mice xenografts.

Author(s): 
Shrotriya, Sangeeta
Deep, Gagan
Gu, Mallikarjuna
Kaur, Manjinder
Jain, Anil K.
Inturi, Swetha
Agarwal, Rajesh
Agarwal, Chapla
Publication Title: 
Experimental Dermatology

Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), one of the most common neoplasms, cause serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identification of non-toxic phytochemicals for prevention/treatment of NMSCs is highly desirable. Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, present in fruits and vegetables possesses anti-oxidant and antiproliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemotherapeutic potential of fisetin in cultured human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

Author(s): 
Pal, Harish C.
Sharma, Samriti
Elmets, Craig A.
Athar, Mohammad
Afaq, Farrukh

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