Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Multiple system atrophy is a neurodegenerative disease caused by abnormal ?-synuclein (?-syn) accumulation in oligodendrocytes and neurons. We previously demonstrated that transgenic (Tg) mice that selectively overexpressed human ?-syn in oligodendrocytes exhibited neuronal ?-syn accumulation. Microtubule ?-III tubulin binds to endogenous neuronal ?-syn to form an insoluble complex, leading to progressive neuronal degeneration. ?-Syn accumulation is increased in the presynaptic terminals of Tg mice neurons and may reduce neurotransmitter release.
Recent advances in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder research suggest that a dysfunction of GABAergic neurotransmission that is operative in telencephalic structures may be an important dynamic mechanism associated with psychosis. We propose that this dysfunction is probably mediated by the hypermethylation of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), reelin and other gene promoters expressed in GABAergic neurons.
Schizophrenia, a major psychiatric disorder defined by delusions and hallucinations, among other symptoms, often with onset in early adulthood, is potentially associated with molecular and cellular alterations in parvalbumin-expressing fast spiking interneurons and other constituents of the cortical inhibitory GABAergic circuitry. The underlying mechanisms, including the role of disease-associated risk factors operating in adolescence such as drug abuse and social stressors, remain incompletely understood.
The brain is built from a large number of cell types which have been historically classified using location, morphology and molecular markers. Recent research suggests an important role of epigenetics in shaping and maintaining cell identity in the brain. To elucidate the role of DNA methylation in neuronal differentiation, we developed a new protocol for separation of nuclei from the two major populations of human prefrontal cortex neurons--GABAergic interneurons and glutamatergic (GLU) projection neurons.
Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with GABA neuron dysfunction in the hippocampus, particularly the stratum oriens of sector CA3/2. A gene expression profile analysis of human postmortem hippocampal tissue followed by a network association analysis had shown a number of genes differentially regulated in SZ, including the epigenetic factors HDAC1 and DAXX. To characterize the contribution of these factors to the developmental perturbation hypothesized to underlie SZ, lentiviral vectors carrying short hairpin RNA interference (shRNAi) for HDAC1 and DAXX were used.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Recent studies have identified impairments in neural induction and in striatal and cortical neurogenesis in Huntington's disease (HD) knock-in mouse models and associated embryonic stem cell lines. However, the potential role of these developmental alterations for HD pathogenesis and progression is currently unknown. To address this issue, we used BACHD:CAG-Cre(ERT2) mice, which carry mutant huntingtin (mHtt) modified to harbor a floxed exon 1 containing the pathogenic polyglutamine expansion (Q97).
The plant Withania somnifera (WS), also known as Ashwagandha, has been used widely in traditional medicine systems in India and Nepal (Ayurveda), and has been accepted to cure various ailments. In this study, the whole-cell patch clamp technique was performed to examine the mechanism of action of WS on the SG neurons of the Vc from mouse brainstem slices. In whole-cell patch clamp mode, methanol extract of Withania somnifera (mWS) induced short-lived and repeatable inward currents in all SG neurons tested (31.3 ± 8.51 pA, n = 7) using a high chloride pipette solution.
BACKGROUND: Cross-modal plasticity is characterized as the hypersensitivity of remaining modalities after a sensory function is lost in rodents, which ensures their awareness to environmental changes. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cross-modal sensory plasticity remain unclear. We aim to study the role of different types of neurons in cross-modal plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In addition to behavioral tasks in mice, whole-cell recordings at the excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and their two-photon imaging, were conducted in piriform cortex.