Gallbladder

Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Psychology

The subjective experience of the psychologist-author when addressing and undergoing a surgical procedure is described, including-consistent with his own theoretical and technical orientation--the use of various brief therapy and hypnotherapy methods. A narrative of events is presented with interspersed comments about internal processes and reflections. A discussion of "Lessons Learned and Offered," including various comments about personal therapy (therapist as patient), then completes the article.

Author(s): 
Hoyt, Michael F.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

The purpose of this study was to determine whether bioflavonoid glucoside O-conjugates are absorbed from the intestine in the intact form or as their aglycones following hydrolysis by intestinal beta-glucosidases. In this study, the intestinal absorption of genistin, the beta-glucoside of the isoflavone genistein, was examined in anesthetized, adult female rats fitted with indwelling biliary cannulas. To first establish whether genistein, once absorbed, was converted into unique metabolites, genistin was infused into the femoral or portal veins and bile samples quantitatively collected.

Author(s): 
Prasain, Jeevan K.
Xu, Jun
Kirk, Marion
Smith Johnson, Michelle
Sfakianos, Jeff
Barnes, Stephen
Publication Title: 
Gut

Repeated daily injections of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide (SMS201-995, Sandostatin) are an effective treatment for acromegaly, but lead to gall stone formation in about 50% of cases during longterm treatment. This is probably because of impaired gall bladder contraction. This study examined whether the timing of intermittent injections in relation to meals, or alternatively, continuous 24 hour subcutaneous octreotide infusion (CSOI) might avert adverse effects on gall bladder contraction.

Author(s): 
Stolk, M. F.
van Erpecum, K. J.
Koppeschaar, H. P.
de Bruin, W. I.
Jansen, J. B.
Lamers, C. B.
van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation

The effects of obesity and caloric intake on biliary lipid metabolism were investigated in a series of related studies. The degree of saturation of gallbladder bile with cholesterol was found to be significantly higher in a group of 23 obese healthy subjects than in a group of 23 nonobese controls matched for age, sex, and race. Bile was also significantly more saturated in 11 obese subjects before than after weight reduction.

Author(s): 
Bennion, L. J.
Grundy, S. M.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Physiology

Acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a wide range of diseases and conditions, including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. In a feline model of reflex-induced reversible myocardial ischemia, electrical stimulation of the median nerves to mimic EA (Neiguan acupoint) significantly improved ischemic dysfunction, secondary to an inhibitory effect of EA on reflex pressor effects evoked by bradykinin (BK). The central mechanism of EA's inhibitory effect in this model is unknown.

Author(s): 
Chao, D. M.
Shen, L. L.
Tjen-A-Looi, S.
Pitsillides, K. F.
Li, P.
Longhurst, J. C.
Publication Title: 
Chang Gung Medical Journal

Snake gallbladder is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for treating arthritis and detoxification for more than two thousand years. Sporadic cases of toxic hepatic and renal injury from snake gallbladder have been reported. The toxic effects are dose related and there is a high mortality rate after delayed renal failure. We present a 35 year-old man who was a hepatitis B surface antigen carrier who developed acute hepatic failure after ingestion of snake gallbladder capsules for 6 weeks.

Author(s): 
Hong, Shyh-Ming
Tai, Dar-In
Wu, Mai-Szu
Lin, Ja-Liang
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine

Bear bile has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. Modern investigations showed that it has a wide range of pharmacological actions with little toxicological side effect and the pure compounds have been used for curing hepatic and biliary disorders for decades. However, extensive consumption of bear bile made bears endangered species. In the 1980's, bear farming was established in China to extract bear bile from living bears with "Free-dripping Fistula Technique".

Author(s): 
Feng, Yibin
Siu, Kayu
Wang, Ning
Ng, Kwan-Ming
Tsao, Sai-Wah
Nagamatsu, Tadashi
Tong, Yao
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Physiology

Acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a wide range of diseases and conditions, including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. In a feline model of reflex-induced reversible myocardial ischemia, electrical stimulation of the median nerves to mimic EA (Neiguan acupoint) significantly improved ischemic dysfunction, secondary to an inhibitory effect of EA on reflex pressor effects evoked by bradykinin (BK). The central mechanism of EA's inhibitory effect in this model is unknown.

Author(s): 
Chao, D. M.
Shen, L. L.
Tjen-A-Looi, S.
Pitsillides, K. F.
Li, P.
Longhurst, J. C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine = Chung I Tsa Chih Ying Wen Pan / Sponsored by All-China Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Author(s): 
Wang, Yanhui
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

We have shown that the modulatory effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the blood pressure (BP) response induced by visceral organ stimulation is related to inhibition of cardiovascular neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) through a mechanism that involves opioids. This effect is long lasting and may involve a long-loop neural supraspinal pathway, including the arcuate nucleus (ARC), which is an important site of opioid neurotransmitter synthesis.

Author(s): 
Li, Peng
Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.
Longhurst, John C.

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