Gallic Acid

Publication Title: 
Pharmacognosy Magazine

"Triphalaguggulu" is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging.

Author(s): 
Muguli, Ganesh
Vadaparthi, P. R. Rao
Ramesh, B.
Gowda, Vishakante
Paramesh, Rangesh
Jadhav, Atul N.
Babu, K. Suresh
Publication Title: 
Journal of Medical Microbiology

Shigella spp. (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei) cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), which is characterized by bloody mucous diarrhoea. Although a variety of antibiotics have been effective for treatment of shigellosis, options are becoming limited due to globally emerging drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activity of methyl gallate (MG) isolated from Terminalia chebula was determined by performing MIC, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetic studies.

Author(s): 
Acharyya, Saurabh
Sarkar, Prodipta
Saha, Dhira R.
Patra, Amarendra
Ramamurthy, T.
Bag, Prasanta K.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacognosy Research

Lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors are the promising therapeutic target for treating a wide spectrum of inflammatory-related diseases such as cancer, asthma, lymphoma, leukemia, and autoimmune disorders. In the present study, the photochemical constituents and the anti-LOX potential of leaf galls of Terminalia chebula are evaluated to exemplify its further potential development as medicine. Extracts of T.

Author(s): 
Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur
Ramachandra, Yarappa Lakshmikantha
Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan
Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura
Austin, Richard Surendranath
Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa
Publication Title: 
Anticancer Research

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed solid malignancies among US men. We identified gallic acid (GA) as a major bioactive cytotoxic constituent of a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation - triphala (TPL). Both TPL and GA were evaluated on (AR)(+) LNCaP prostate cancer and normal epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total polyphenols in TPL were determined using Folin and Ciocalteu method, followed by GA quantitation by high performance liquid chromatography. Cell toxicity was evaluated by crystal violet after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h.

Author(s): 
Russell, Larry H.
Mazzio, Elizabeth
Badisa, Ramesh B.
Zhu, Zhi-Ping
Agharahimi, Maryam
Millington, Donna J.
Goodman, Carl B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

Quantification of bioactive principles through modern analytical tools is essential for establishing the authenticity, credibility, prescription and usage of Ayurvedic medicines/herbal formulations. 'Chyavanprash' is one of the oldest and most popular Ayurvedic preparations, used widely as a health promotive and disease preventive 'Rasayana' drug in India and elsewhere. The rejuvenating and tonic properties of 'Chavanprash' are considered mainly due to their antioxidant principles, which in turn is due to the presence of phenolic compounds.

Author(s): 
Govindarajan, R.
Singh, D. P.
Rawat, A. K. S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Terminalia belerica Roxb. is one of the oldest medicinal herb of India, is an ingredient of Indian Ayurvedic drug 'triphala' used for the treatment of digestion and liver disorders. Present study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Terminalia belerica fruit extract and its active principle, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) at different doses against carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Toxicant caused significant increase in the activities of serum transaminases and serum alkaline phosphatase.

Author(s): 
Jadon, Anjana
Bhadauria, Monika
Shukla, Sangeeta
Publication Title: 
Natural Product Communications

Abhayarishta is an Ayurvedic formulation prepared traditionally by the fermentation of the decoction of Terminalia chebula (pericarp), Vitis vinifera (fruits), Embelia ribes (fruits) and Madhuca indica (flowers). In the present communication, chemical changes occurring during fermentation in Abhayarishta have been studied for the purpose of its standardization. An HPLC-DAD method for quantitative estimation of selected marker constituents in the formulation has been developed and validated.

Author(s): 
Lal, Uma Ranjan
Tripathi, Shailendra Mani
Jachak, Sanjay M.
Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar
Singh, Inder Pal
Publication Title: 
Protein and Peptide Letters

Triphala is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of equal parts of three myrobalans: Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. We recently reported that chebulagic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula is a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor. In this study, compounds isolated from Terminalia bellerica were tested for inhibition against COX and 5-LOX. One of the fractionated compounds showed potent inhibition against COX enzymes with no inhibition against 5-LOX. It was identified as gallic acid (GA) by LC-MS, NMR and IR analyses.

Author(s): 
Reddy, Tamatam Chandramohan
Aparoy, Polamarasetty
Babu, Neela Kishore
Kumar, Kotha Anil
Kalangi, Suresh Kumar
Reddanna, Pallu
Publication Title: 
Anticancer Research

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed solid malignancies among US men. We identified gallic acid (GA) as a major bioactive cytotoxic constituent of a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation - triphala (TPL). Both TPL and GA were evaluated on (AR)(+) LNCaP prostate cancer and normal epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total polyphenols in TPL were determined using Folin and Ciocalteu method, followed by GA quantitation by high performance liquid chromatography. Cell toxicity was evaluated by crystal violet after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h.

Author(s): 
Russell, Larry H.
Mazzio, Elizabeth
Badisa, Ramesh B.
Zhu, Zhi-Ping
Agharahimi, Maryam
Millington, Donna J.
Goodman, Carl B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

The quality of botanical food is increasingly assessed by the content of multiple bioactive compounds. This study reports, for the first time, an HPLC fingerprinting method for the quality evaluation of Rubus suavissimus leaves possessing multiple bioactivities. Five constituents, gallic acid, rutin, ellagic acid, rubusoside, and steviol monoside, were quantified and used in developing qualitative chromatographic fingerprints. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.29 to 37.86 mug/mL.

Author(s): 
Chou, Guixin
Xu, Shun-Jun
Liu, Dong
Koh, Gar Yee
Zhang, Jian
Liu, Zhijun

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