Gambia

Publication Title: 
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Internationale Zeitschrift F¸r Vitamin- Und Ern‰hrungsforschung. Journal International De Vitaminologie Et De Nutrition

Vitamin E and carotenoid pigments are important nutrients for the maintenance of health and protection of tissues against free radical damage. They also play a potential role in disease-risk-prediction and -protection, but little is known about their physiological and sociodemographic correlates and determinants, especially in a West African context. As part of a study of reproductive health in rural Gambian women, blood samples were obtained from 1286 women aged 15 to 54 years, living in the Farafenni area of The Gambia.

Author(s): 
Bates, Christopher J.
Matthews, Neal
West, Beryl
Morison, Linda
Walraven, Gijs
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

New antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. The use of short courses of the new antimalarial drug artemether as monotherapy has been limited by secondary malaria episodes following parasite clearance. Therefore, a new antimalarial drug, CGP 56697, has been developed, which combines artemether with a longer-acting antimalarial agent, benflumetol. A safety trial was undertaken in 60 Gambian children 1-6 years old with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. All children treated with CGP 56697 cleared their parasites 72 h after the start of treatment.

Author(s): 
von Seidlein, L.
Jaffar, S.
Pinder, M.
Haywood, M.
Snounou, G.
Gemperli, B.
Gathmann, I.
Royce, C.
Greenwood, B.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

As part of a study to assess the infectivity of gametocytes after treatment with four antimalarial regimens, the efficacy of each treatment was also determined. From September to December 1998, 598 children with uncomplicated malaria were treated; 135 received chloroquine (CQ) alone, 276 received pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Fansidar, PSD) alone, 113 received PSD with a single dose of artesunate (PSD + 1ART) and 74 received PSD combined with three doses of artesunate (PSD + 3ART). On day 28 19/63 (30.2%; 95% C.I. 19.2% to 43.1%) of children treated with CQ alone, 5/134 (3.7%; 95% C.I.

Author(s): 
von Seidlein, L.
Jawara, M.
Coleman, R.
Doherty, T.
Walraven, G.
Targett, G.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Combination therapy that includes artemisinin derivatives cures most falciparum malaria infections. Lowering transmission by reducing gametocyte infectivity would be an additional benefit. To examine the effect of such therapy on transmission, Gambian children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with standard regimens of chloroquine or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine alone or in combination with 1 or 3 doses of artesunate. The infectivity to mosquitoes of gametocytes in peripheral blood was determined 4 or 7 days after treatment.

Author(s): 
Targett, G.
Drakeley, C.
Jawara, M.
von Seidlein, L.
Coleman, R.
Deen, J.
Pinder, M.
Doherty, T.
Sutherland, C.
Walraven, G.
Milligan, P.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

To test the hypothesis that widespread treatment with artemisinin derivatives can reduce malaria transmission, a mass drug administration (MDA) campaign was undertaken in an area of The Gambia in 1999. Coverage of 85% of the target population was achieved, but the intervention did not reduce overall malaria transmission. We studied the perceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the community to the MDA campaign. A validated questionnaire was administered to randomly selected MDA participants (n = 90) and MDA refusers (n = 71).

Author(s): 
De Martin, S.
von Seidlein, L.
Deen, J. L.
Pinder, M.
Walraven, G.
Greenwood, B.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

In a randomized controlled trial, chloroquine monotherapy was compared with the combination of artesunate and chloroquine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 536 Gambian children. Chloroquine-treated children exhibited a 28-day clinical failure rate of 15% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.2-22%) compared with 11% (7.8-15%) among children receiving the combination (P = 0.08, by Wilcoxon test).

Author(s): 
Sutherland, Colin J.
Drakeley, Christopher J.
Obisike, Uche
Coleman, Rosalind
Jawara, Musa
Targett, Geoffrey A. T.
Milligan, Paul
Pinder, Margaret
Walraven, Gijs
Publication Title: 
PloS One

The objective of this study was to determine the appropriate dose of artesunate for use in a fixed dose combination therapy with chlorproguanil-dapsone (CPG-DDS) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. METHODS: Open-label clinical trial comparing CPG-DDS alone or with artesunate 4, 2, or 1 mg/kg at medical centers in Blantyre, Malawi and Farafenni, The Gambia. The trial was conducted between June 2002 and February 2005, including 116 adults (median age 27 years) and 107 children (median age 38 months) with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Author(s): 
Wootton, Daniel G.
Opara, Hyginus
Biagini, Giancarlo A.
Kanjala, Maxwell K.
Duparc, Stephan
Kirby, Paula L.
Woessner, Mary
Neate, Colin
Nyirenda, Maggie
Blencowe, Hannah
Dube-Mbeye, Queen
Kanyok, Thomas
Ward, Stephen
Molyneux, Malcolm
Dunyo, Sam
Winstanley, Peter A.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin combination therapies (ACT), which are increasingly being introduced for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, are more effective against sexual stage parasites (gametocytes) than previous first-line antimalarials and therefore have the potential to reduce parasite transmission. The size of this effect is estimated in symptomatic P. falciparum infections. METHODS: Data on 3,174 patients were pooled from six antimalarial trials conducted in The Gambia and Kenya.

Author(s): 
Okell, Lucy C.
Drakeley, Chris J.
Ghani, Azra C.
Bousema, Teun
Sutherland, Colin J.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify and compare factors associated with Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in three regions of differing malaria endemicity. METHODS: Retrospective data from Thailand, The Gambia and Tanzania were used. The data came from large prospective field-based clinical trials, which investigated gametocyte carriage after different anti-malarial drug treatments.

Author(s): 
Stepniewska, Kasia
Price, Ric N.
Sutherland, Colin J.
Drakeley, Chris J.
von Seidlein, Lorenz
Nosten, François
White, Nicholas J.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: The decline in malaria coinciding with the introduction of newer, costly anti-malarials has prompted studies into the overtreatment for malaria mostly in East Africa. The study presented here describes prescribing practices for malaria at health facilities in a West African country. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in two urban Gambian primary health facilities (PHFs) during and outside the malaria transmission season. Facilities were comparable in terms of the staffing compliment and capability to perform slide microscopy.

Author(s): 
Okebe, Joseph U.
Walther, Brigitte
Bojang, Kawsu
Drammeh, Silaba
Schellenberg, David
Conway, David J.
Walther, Michael

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