gamma-Aminobutyric Acid

Publication Title: 
American Family Physician

The results of large clinical trials have led physicians and patients to question the safety of hormone therapy for menopause. In the past, physicians prescribed hormone therapy to improve overall health and prevent cardiac disease, as well as for symptoms of menopause. Combined estrogen/progestogen therapy, but not estrogen alone, increases the risk of breast cancer when used for more than three to five years.

Author(s): 
Hill, D. Ashley
Crider, Mark
Hill, Susan R.
Publication Title: 
American Family Physician

The results of large clinical trials have led physicians and patients to question the safety of hormone therapy for menopause. In the past, physicians prescribed hormone therapy to improve overall health and prevent cardiac disease, as well as for symptoms of menopause. Combined estrogen/progestogen therapy, but not estrogen alone, increases the risk of breast cancer when used for more than three to five years.

Author(s): 
Hill, D. Ashley
Crider, Mark
Hill, Susan R.
Publication Title: 
The Annals of Pharmacotherapy

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of gabapentin for the treatment of uremic pruritus (UP). DATA SOURCES: Literature retrieval was accessed through MEDLINE (1950-March week 3, 2008; In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, April 1, 2008) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-March 2008) using the terms gabapentin, pruritus, itch, urem$ (truncated), dialysis, and kidney disease. The Google Scholar search engine was used to identify articles that MEDLINE did not capture with the described search terms.

Author(s): 
Vila, Tania
Gommer, Jennifer
Scates, Ann C.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Hot flushes are common in women with a history of breast cancer. Hormonal therapies are known to reduce these symptoms but are not recommended in women with a history of breast cancer due to their potential adverse effects. The efficacy of non-hormonal therapies is still uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of non-hormonal therapies in reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer.

Author(s): 
Rada, Gabriel
Capurro, Daniel
Pantoja, Tomas
Corbalán, Javiera
Moreno, Gladys
Letelier, Luz M.
Vera, Claudio
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Hot flushes are common in women with a history of breast cancer. Hormonal therapies are known to reduce these symptoms but are not recommended in women with a history of breast cancer due to their potential adverse effects. The efficacy of non-hormonal therapies is still uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of non-hormonal therapies in reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer.

Author(s): 
Rada, Gabriel
Capurro, Daniel
Pantoja, Tomas
Corbalán, Javiera
Moreno, Gladys
Letelier, Luz M.
Vera, Claudio
Publication Title: 
American Family Physician

The results of large clinical trials have led physicians and patients to question the safety of hormone therapy for menopause. In the past, physicians prescribed hormone therapy to improve overall health and prevent cardiac disease, as well as for symptoms of menopause. Combined estrogen/progestogen therapy, but not estrogen alone, increases the risk of breast cancer when used for more than three to five years.

Author(s): 
Hill, D. Ashley
Crider, Mark
Hill, Susan R.
Publication Title: 
Critical Reviews in Neurobiology

Several lines of evidence support the role of an epigenetic-induced GABAergic cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia psychopathology, which is probably dependent on an increase in the expression of DNA-methyltransferase-1 occurring selectively in GABAergic neurons. The key enzyme regulating GABA synthesis, termed glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and the important neurodevelopmental protein called reelin are coexpressed in GABAergic neurons. Upon release, GABA and reelin bind to postsynaptic receptors located in dendrites, somata, or the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons.

Author(s): 
Costa, E.
Davis, J. M.
Dong, E.
Grayson, D. R.
Guidotti, A.
Tremolizzo, L.
Veldic, M.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

Among the most consistent results of studies of post-mortem brain tissue from schizophrenia patients (SZP) is the finding that in this disease, several genes expressed by GABAergic neurons are downregulated. This downregulation may be caused by hypermethylation of the relevant promoters in affected neurons. Indeed, increased numbers of GABAergic interneurons expressing DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) mRNA have been demonstrated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of SZP using in situ hybridization.

Author(s): 
Ruzicka, W. B.
Zhubi, A.
Veldic, M.
Grayson, D. R.
Costa, E.
Guidotti, A.
Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Research

In the cerebral prefrontal cortex (PFC), DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of cytosine at carbon atoms in position 5 in CpG dinucleotides, is expressed selectively in GABAergic neurons and is upregulated in layers I and II of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder patients with psychosis (BDP).

Author(s): 
Veldic, Marin
Kadriu, Bashkim
Maloku, Ekrem
Agis-Balboa, Roberto C.
Guidotti, Alessandro
Davis, John M.
Costa, Erminio
Publication Title: 
Epigenetics

In this review, we discuss changes in the regulation of gene expression in the central nervous system (CNS) associated with DNA (cytosine-5) methylation, chromatin remodeling and post-translational covalent modifications of histones. During brain development, abnormal intrinsic or extrinsic cues may compromise epigenetic processes regulating neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation and thus directly or indirectly could contribute to altered epiphenotypes leading to psychiatric disorders.

Author(s): 
Costa, Erminio
Dong, Erbo
Grayson, Dennis R.
Guidotti, Alessandro
Ruzicka, William
Veldic, Marin

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