gamma-Aminobutyric Acid

Publication Title: 
Masui. The Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology

General anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness covers a spectrum of different behavioral components, namely, (1) amnesia, (2) sedation/hypnosis, (3) analgesia, and (4) immobility. At the molecular and cellular level, anesthetic drugs have been shown to have effects on a wide rage of putative targets, such as ligand-gated ion channels (GABA, glycine, NMDA receptors), other ion channels (K+, Na+, Ca2+), and other intracellular functions. This mini-review summarizes recent topics in this research field focusing on NMDA and GABA receptors.

Author(s): 
Nishikawa, Koichi
Publication Title: 
Pharmaceutical Biology

CONTEXT: The genus Urtica has been known since ancient times. It has known to be useful for the treatment of different human ailments. OBJECTIVE: The present work evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica circularis (Hicken) Sorarú (Urticaceae). materials and method: The effect on central nervous system of U.

Author(s): 
Anzoise, María Laura
Marrassini, Carla
Ferraro, Graciela
Gorzalczany, Susana
Publication Title: 
Anesthesiology

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies demonstrate that anesthetic-induced unconsciousness is accompanied by activation of hypothalamic sleep-promoting neurons, which occurs through both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. However, the correlation between drug exposure, neuronal activation, and onset of hypnosis remains incompletely understood. Moreover, the degree to which anesthetics activate both endogenous populations of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic sleep-promoting neurons within the ventrolateral preoptic (VLPO) and median preoptic nuclei remains unknown.

Author(s): 
Han, Bo
McCarren, Hilary S.
O'Neill, Dan
Kelz, Max B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Biochemistry

To investigate the kinetics of both the potentiation and desensitization of the response of ionotropic GABA receptors (GABA(A) receptors) in the presence of various compounds, we expressed receptors composed of alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits by injecting cells with the cRNAs synthesized from cloned bovine GABA(A) receptor cDNAs and measured the electrical responses of the cells electrophysiologically with or without the compounds.

Author(s): 
Aoshima, H.
Hossain, S. J.
Hamamoto, K.
Yokoyama, T.
Yamada, M.
Shingai, R.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Recent clinical data support the clinical use of oral lavender oil in patients suffering from subsyndromal anxiety. We identified the molecular mechanism of action that will alter the perception of lavender oil as a nonspecific ingredient of aromatherapy to a potent anxiolytic inhibiting voltage dependent calcium channels (VOCCs) as highly selective drug target.

Author(s): 
Schuwald, Anita M.
N�ldner, Michael
Wilmes, Thomas
Klugbauer, Norbert
Leuner, Kristina
M�ller, Walter E.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Various parts of Sesbania grandiflora have been used in the Indian system of medicine, in particular, the leaves of S. grandiflora are used in Ayurveda for the treatment of epileptic fits. In the present study we have evaluated the anticonvulsive activity of S. grandiflora leaves using a variety of animal models of convulsions. Bioassay guided separation was also carried out to identify the fraction possessing anticonvulsant activity.

Author(s): 
Kasture, Veena S.
Deshmukh, V. K.
Chopde, C. T.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Chinese Medicine

The plant Withania somnifera (WS), also known as Ashwagandha, has been used widely in traditional medicine systems in India and Nepal (Ayurveda), and has been accepted to cure various ailments. In this study, the whole-cell patch clamp technique was performed to examine the mechanism of action of WS on the SG neurons of the Vc from mouse brainstem slices. In whole-cell patch clamp mode, methanol extract of Withania somnifera (mWS) induced short-lived and repeatable inward currents in all SG neurons tested (31.3 ± 8.51 pA, n = 7) using a high chloride pipette solution.

Author(s): 
Yin, Hua
Cho, Dong Hyu
Park, Soo Joung
Han, Seong Kyu
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare changes in brain gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) levels associated with an acute yoga session versus a reading session. It was hypothesized that an individual yoga session would be associated with an increase in brain GABA levels. DESIGN: This is a parallel-groups design. SETTINGS/LOCATION: Screenings, scan acquisitions, and interventions took place at medical school-affiliated centers. SUBJECTS: The sample comprised 8 yoga practitioners and 11 comparison subjects.

Author(s): 
Streeter, Chris C.
Jensen, J. Eric
Perlmutter, Ruth M.
Cabral, Howard J.
Tian, Hua
Terhune, Devin B.
Ciraulo, Domenic A.
Renshaw, Perry F.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: Yoga and exercise have beneficial effects on mood and anxiety. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic activity is reduced in mood and anxiety disorders. The practice of yoga postures is associated with increased brain GABA levels. This study addresses the question of whether changes in mood, anxiety, and GABA levels are specific to yoga or related to physical activity. METHODS: Healthy subjects with no significant medical/psychiatric disorders were randomized to yoga or a metabolically matched walking intervention for 60 minutes 3 times a week for 12 weeks.

Author(s): 
Streeter, Chris C.
Whitfield, Theodore H.
Owen, Liz
Rein, Tasha
Karri, Surya K.
Yakhkind, Aleksandra
Perlmutter, Ruth
Prescot, Andrew
Renshaw, Perry F.
Ciraulo, Domenic A.
Jensen, J. Eric
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

GABA-mediated postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded from dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats, in acute brain slices, and from enzymatically or mechanically dissociated neurons. In young rats (3-10 d of age), where GABA is excitatory, glycine (1-3 microm) and taurine (10-30 microm) increased the amplitude of evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) and the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) but had minimal postsynaptic effects.

Author(s): 
Ye, Jiang-Hong
Wang, Fushun
Krnjevic, Kresimir
Wang, Weizhen
Xiong, Zhi-Gang
Zhang, Jingli

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