gamma-Aminobutyric Acid

Publication Title: 
Metabolic Brain Disease

As the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain, GABA is an important modulator of hyperexcitability in epilepsy patients. Given the high energetic cost of neurotransmission and synaptic activity, GABA concentrations may be hypothesized to correlate with metabolic function.

Author(s): 
Pan, J. W.
Cavus, I.
Kim, J.
Hetherington, H. P.
Spencer, D. D.
Publication Title: 
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVE: Based on a common mechanism of action with gabapentin, we investigated the effects of L-methionine on hot flashes in postmenopausal women. METHODS: After a 1-week baseline period, 51 postmenopausal women experiencing at least five moderate-severe hot flashes per day were randomized to one of three groups in a 13:13:25 ratio: placebo/placebo, placebo/L-methionine, or L-methionine/L-methionine, respectively (phase 1/phase 2). Phase 1 was 12 weeks long, and phase 2 was 8 weeks long. Participants took 1 g PO BID in phase 1 and 2 g PO BID in phase 2 of either L-methionine or placebo.

Author(s): 
Guttuso, Thomas
McDermott, Michael P.
Ng, Phillip
Kieburtz, Karl
Publication Title: 
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology

Potential mechanisms of Passiflora incarnata extracts and the effect of extraction methods on ingredients and biological effects were explored. Using the same batch of plant material, total flavonoid yields as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) increased substantially with hot versus cold extraction methods. Whole Passiflora extract induced prominent, dose-dependent direct GABA(A) currents in hippocampal slices, but the expected modulation of synaptic GABA(A) currents was not seen.

Author(s): 
Elsas, S.-M.
Rossi, D. J.
Raber, J.
White, G.
Seeley, C.-A.
Gregory, W. L.
Mohr, C.
Pfankuch, T.
Soumyanath, A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: Yoga and exercise have beneficial effects on mood and anxiety. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic activity is reduced in mood and anxiety disorders. The practice of yoga postures is associated with increased brain GABA levels. This study addresses the question of whether changes in mood, anxiety, and GABA levels are specific to yoga or related to physical activity. METHODS: Healthy subjects with no significant medical/psychiatric disorders were randomized to yoga or a metabolically matched walking intervention for 60 minutes 3 times a week for 12 weeks.

Author(s): 
Streeter, Chris C.
Whitfield, Theodore H.
Owen, Liz
Rein, Tasha
Karri, Surya K.
Yakhkind, Aleksandra
Perlmutter, Ruth
Prescot, Andrew
Renshaw, Perry F.
Ciraulo, Domenic A.
Jensen, J. Eric
Publication Title: 
Archives of General Psychiatry

CONTEXT: Anhedonia, a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD) and highly variable among adolescents with MDD, may involve alterations in the major inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter system of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). OBJECTIVE: To test whether anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) GABA levels, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are decreased in adolescents with MDD. The associations of GABA alterations with the presence and severity of anhedonia were explored.

Author(s): 
Gabbay, Vilma
Mao, Xiangling
Klein, Rachel G.
Ely, Benjamin A.
Babb, James S.
Panzer, Aviva M.
Alonso, Carmen M.
Shungu, Dikoma C.
Publication Title: 
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

We develop and implement a selective homonuclear polarization transfer method for the detection of 3.0 ppm C-4 GABA resonance by spectroscopic imaging in the human brain at 7T. This single shot method is demonstrated with simulations and phantoms, which achieves comparable efficiency of detection to that of J-difference editing. The macromolecule resonance that commonly co-edits with GABA is suppressed at 7T through use of a narrow band preacquisition suppression pulse.

Author(s): 
Pan, J. W.
Duckrow, R. B.
Spencer, D. D.
Avdievich, N. I.
Hetherington, H. P.
Publication Title: 
Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries

Post-burn itch is a distressing symptom in burns rehabilitation and its treatment often proves frustrating for the patient and the multidisciplinary burns team. Traditionally, the mainstay of antipruritic therapy for decades has been antihistamines and massage with emollients. With a better understanding of the neurophysiology of itch emerged a new dimension in the treatment of post-burn pruritus. Gabapentin, a centrally modulating anti-epileptic agent and α2δ ligand, proved in clinical trials to be immensely better in the treatment of post-burn pruritus.

Author(s): 
Ahuja, Rajeev B.
Gupta, Gaurav K.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare changes in brain gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) levels associated with an acute yoga session versus a reading session. It was hypothesized that an individual yoga session would be associated with an increase in brain GABA levels. DESIGN: This is a parallel-groups design. SETTINGS/LOCATION: Screenings, scan acquisitions, and interventions took place at medical school-affiliated centers. SUBJECTS: The sample comprised 8 yoga practitioners and 11 comparison subjects.

Author(s): 
Streeter, Chris C.
Jensen, J. Eric
Perlmutter, Ruth M.
Cabral, Howard J.
Tian, Hua
Terhune, Devin B.
Ciraulo, Domenic A.
Renshaw, Perry F.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: Yoga and exercise have beneficial effects on mood and anxiety. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic activity is reduced in mood and anxiety disorders. The practice of yoga postures is associated with increased brain GABA levels. This study addresses the question of whether changes in mood, anxiety, and GABA levels are specific to yoga or related to physical activity. METHODS: Healthy subjects with no significant medical/psychiatric disorders were randomized to yoga or a metabolically matched walking intervention for 60 minutes 3 times a week for 12 weeks.

Author(s): 
Streeter, Chris C.
Whitfield, Theodore H.
Owen, Liz
Rein, Tasha
Karri, Surya K.
Yakhkind, Aleksandra
Perlmutter, Ruth
Prescot, Andrew
Renshaw, Perry F.
Ciraulo, Domenic A.
Jensen, J. Eric
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Hot flushes are common in women with a history of breast cancer. Hormonal therapies are known to reduce these symptoms but are not recommended in women with a history of breast cancer due to their potential adverse effects. The efficacy of non-hormonal therapies is still uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of non-hormonal therapies in reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer.

Author(s): 
Rada, Gabriel
Capurro, Daniel
Pantoja, Tomas
Corbalán, Javiera
Moreno, Gladys
Letelier, Luz M.
Vera, Claudio

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