International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Internationale Zeitschrift F¸r Vitamin- Und Ern‰hrungsforschung. Journal International De Vitaminologie Et De Nutrition
Vitamin E and carotenoid pigments are important nutrients for the maintenance of health and protection of tissues against free radical damage. They also play a potential role in disease-risk-prediction and -protection, but little is known about their physiological and sociodemographic correlates and determinants, especially in a West African context. As part of a study of reproductive health in rural Gambian women, blood samples were obtained from 1286 women aged 15 to 54 years, living in the Farafenni area of The Gambia.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
gamma-Tocopherol (gammaT), the predominant form of vitamin E in diets, but not alpha-tocopherol, the major vitamin E form in tissues and supplements, inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and PC-3) and lung cancer cells (A549). In contrast, at similar concentrations, gammaT has no effect on normal prostate epithelial cells. Combinations of some vitamin E forms, such as gammaT and delta-tocopherol, exhibit additive or synergistic inhibitory effects.
Blood transfusion therapy is life-saving for patients with beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell disease (SCD), but often results in severe iron overload. This pilot study examined whether the biomarkers of tissue injury or inflammation differ in these two diseases. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly increased 1.8-fold in thalassaemia relative to control patients. In contrast, MDA in SCD was not significantly different from controls. In multivariate analysis, the strongest predictors of elevated MDA were liver iron concentration (P < 0.001) and specific diagnosis (P = 0.019).
Natural vitamin E consists of four different tocopherol and four different tocotrienol homologues (alpha,beta, gamma, delta) that all have antioxidant activity. However, recent data indicate that the different vitamin E homologues also have biological activity unrelated to their antioxidant activity. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory properties of the two major forms of vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol (alphaT) and gamma-tocopherol (gammaT), and discuss the potential molecular mechanisms involved in these effects.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prospective clinical trials with alpha-tocopherol (AT) have not yielded positive results. Because AT supplementation decreases circulating gamma-tocopherol (GT), we evaluated supplementation with GT (800 mg/day), AT (800 mg/day), the combination or placebo for 6 weeks alone AT and GT concentrations, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and inflammation in subjects with MetS (n=20/group).
We have recently reported that gamma-tocopherol (gammaT) reduces allergen- and zymosan-induced inflammation using rodent models. As an initial step in extending these observations to humans, we conducted an open-label, Phase I dosing study of two doses (one or two capsules daily for 1 week) of a gamma-tocopherol-rich preparation containing 623 mg of gamma-tocopherol, 61.1 mg of d-alpha-tocopherol, 11.1 mg of d-beta-tocopherol (11.1 mg), and 231 mg of d-sigma-tocopherol per capsule.
Oxidative stress plays a significant role in allergic airway inflammation. Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (alone or combined with ascorbate/vitamin C) has been assessed as an intervention for allergic airway diseases with conflicting results. Enhancing levels of airway antioxidants with oral supplements has been suggested as an intervention to protect individuals from the effect of inhaled oxidants, although it is unclear whether supplementation changes tocopherol or vitamin C levels in both serum and airway fluids.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin are used for pain relief and chemoprevention against cancer, but frequently cause gastric mucosal injury. We examined whether combinations of aspirin and alpha-tocopherol (alphaT) or aspirin and gamma-tocopherol (gammaT), with alphaT and gammaT being the two major forms of vitamin E, are better anti-inflammatory agents than aspirin alone, and whether these combinations alleviate aspirin-associated side effects.
The metabolism of gamma-tocotrienol (gamma-TE) and gamma-tocopherol (gamma-T) was investigated in human A549 cells and in rats. Similar to gamma-T, A549 cells metabolized gamma-TE to sulfated 9'-, 11'-, and 13'-carboxychromanol and their unconjugated counterparts. After 72-h incubation with the cells, 90% of long-chain carboxychromanols in the culture media from gamma-TE, but <45% from gamma-T, were in the sulfated form.
Compared to healthy subjects, individuals with allergic airway disease (e.g., asthma, allergic rhinitis) have enhanced inflammatory responses to inhaled ozone. We created a rodent model of ozone-enhanced allergic nasal responses in Brown Norway rats to test the therapeutic effects of the dietary supplement gamma-tocopherol (gammaT). Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rats were intranasally challenged with 0% or 0.5% OVA (in saline) on Days 1 and 2, and then exposed to 0 or 1 ppm ozone (eight hours/day) on Days 4 and 5.