Zhong Yao Cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
The fatty oils in Terminulia chebula were extracted by supercritical-CO2 fluid extraetion, and their fatty acids and its relative contents were determined by GC-MS. 12 fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid of them are main constituents. Compared with petroleum ether extraction method, the extraction rate from SFE-CO2 is higher and extraction time shorter.
Plant-based repellent formulations for honeybees play an important role in the bee management. For this purpose, the essential oil of an Indian medicinal plant, Terminalia chebula, commonly known as Myrobalan, was isolated for the first time. Hitherto unknown chemical constituents of the essential oil were determined by GC/MS. The repellent activity of formulations of the essential oil, tested towards the Indian honeybee Apis florea, was found to be dose dependent.
Archives Internationales De Pharmacodynamie Et De Thérapie
The central nervous activity of the aqueous extract of kava was examined in mice, and compared to the effect of the lipid-soluble extract. The aqueous extract caused a loss of spontaneous activity without loss of muscle tone. No hypnotic effect was seen, but some analgesia was produced. The anticonvulsant effect against strychnine was very slight and there was no evidence of local anesthetic action. There was a slight anti-apomorphine effect and tetrabenazine-induced ptosis was decreased.
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an increasingly popular drug of abuse that causes stimulation, euphoria, anxiolysis or hypnosis, depending on the dose used. Low doses of the drug are used recreationally, and also implicated in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Because of the unusually steep dose-response curves, accidental GHB overdosing, leading to coma, seizures or death can occur. Being a controlled substance, GHB is often substituted with its non-scheduled precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are rapidly metabolized into GHB in the body.
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is an emerging drug of abuse. Beside relaxation and euphoria it causes hypnosis and unconsciousness. Therefore the substance is misused as recreational drug and at drug-facilitated sexual assaults. An automated and effortless method for quantitation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in serum and urine was optimized and validated. Five hundred microliters sample volume are used for both matrices. The acid catalyzed conversion of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid to the corresponding gamma-butyrolactone is applied.
PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary bypass is known to alter propofol pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, few studies have evaluated the impact of these alterations on postoperative pharmacodynamics. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that changes in propofol pharmacokinetics increase hypnotic effects after cardiopulmonary bypass.
The first-dose pharmacokinetic properties of intramuscular (i.m.) artesunate (ARTS; 2.4 mg/kg immediately [stat], followed by 1.2 mg/kg i.m. daily) and artemether (ARM; 3.2 mg/kg i.m. stat, followed by 1.6 mg/kg i.m. daily) were compared in Vietnamese adults with severe falciparum malaria. A total of 19 patients were studied; 9 received ARTS, and 10 received ARM.
A key consideration in metabolic engineering is the determination of fluxes of the metabolites within the cell. This determination provides an unambiguous description of metabolism before and/or after engineering interventions. Here, we present a computational framework that combines a constraint-based modeling framework with isotopic label tracing on a large scale.
At some point during biosynthesis of the antimalarial artemisinin in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua, the Delta11(13) double bond originating in amorpha-4,11-diene is reduced. This is thought to occur in artemisinic aldehyde, but other intermediates have been suggested. In an effort to understand double bond reduction in artemisinin biosynthesis, extracts of A. annua flower buds were investigated and found to contain artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13) double bond reductase activity.
BACKGROUND: Production of pharmaceuticals in plants provides an alternative for chemical synthesis, fermentation or natural sources. Nicotiana benthamiana is deployed at commercial scale for production of therapeutic proteins. Here the potential of this plant is explored for rapid production of precursors of artemisinin, a sesquiterpenoid compound that is used for malaria treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biosynthetic genes leading to artemisinic acid, a precursor of artemisinin, were combined and expressed in N. benthamiana by agro-infiltration.