Gastric Bypass

Publication Title: 
American Journal of Surgery

Obesity is increasing in epidemic proportions world-wide. Even mild degrees of obesity have adverse health effects and are associated with diminished longevity. For this reason aggressive dietary intervention is recommended. Patients with body mass indices exceeding 40 have medically significant obesity in which the risk of serious health consequences is substantial, with concomitant significant reductions in life expectancy. For these patients, sustained weight loss rarely occurs with dietary intervention. For the appropriately selected patients, surgery is beneficial.

Author(s): 
Livingston, Edward H.
Publication Title: 
Seminars in Nephrology

Surgical intervention has become an accepted therapeutic alternative for the patient with medically complicated obesity. Multiple investigators have reported significant and sustained weight loss after bariatric surgery that is associated with improvement of many weight-related medical comorbidities, and statistically significant decreased overall mortality for surgically treated as compared with medically treated subjects.

Author(s): 
Lieske, John C.
Kumar, Rajiv
Collazo-Clavell, Maria L.
Publication Title: 
Gastroenterology

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bariatric surgery has been shown to reverse type 2 diabetes; however, mechanisms by which this occurs remain undefined. Ileal interposition (IT) is a surgical model that isolates the effects of increasing delivery of unabsorbed nutrients to the lower gastrointestinal tract. In this study we investigated effects of IT surgery on glucose tolerance and diabetes onset in UCD-T2DM (University of California at Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus) rats, a polygenic obese animal model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: IT or sham surgery was performed on 4-month-old male UCD-T2DM rats.

Author(s): 
Cummings, Bethany P.
Strader, April D.
Stanhope, Kimber L.
Graham, James L.
Lee, Jennifer
Raybould, Helen E.
Baskin, Denis G.
Havel, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Lipid Research

Plasma lipoproteins and glucose homeostasis were evaluated after marked weight loss before and over 12 months following Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass (RYGBP) surgery in 19 morbidly obese women. Standard lipids, remnant-lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C); HDL-triglyceride (TG); apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-II, E, and A-I-containing HDL subpopulations; lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass and activity; plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after GBP surgery.

Author(s): 
Asztalos, Bela F.
Swarbrick, Michael M.
Schaefer, Ernst J.
Dallal, Gerard E.
Horvath, Katalin V.
Ai, Masumi
Stanhope, Kimber L.
Austrheim-Smith, Iselin
Wolfe, Bruce M.
Ali, Mohamed
Havel, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is widely performed to induce weight loss. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine changes in vitamin status after 2 bariatric surgical techniques. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 Scandinavian hospitals. The subjects were 60 superobese patients [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 50-60]. The surgical interventions were either laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. All patients received multivitamins, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements.

Author(s): 
Aasheim, Erlend T.
Björkman, Sofia
Søvik, Torgeir T.
Engström, My
Hanvold, Susanna E.
Mala, Tom
Olbers, Torsten
Bøhmer, Thomas
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are common in patients undergoing gastric bypass. The effect of this type of surgery on zinc absorption and zinc status is not well known. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) on zinc status and zinc absorption at different stages after surgery. We hypothesized that zinc status would be significantly impaired after surgery and that this impairment would be less severe in subjects receiving increased supplemental zinc. We also hypothesized that zinc absorption would be lower after surgery.

Author(s): 
Ruz, Manuel
Carrasco, Fernando
Rojas, Pamela
Codoceo, Juana
Inostroza, Jorge
Basfi-fer, Karen
Csendes, Attila
Papapietro, Karin
Pizarro, Fernando
Olivares, Manuel
Sian, Lei
Westcott, Jamie L.
Miller, Leland V.
Hambidge, K. Michael
Krebs, Nancy F.
Publication Title: 
Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery

BACKGROUND: Extremely obese adolescents are increasingly undergoing bariatric procedures, which restrict dietary intake. However, as yet, no data are available describing the change in caloric density or composition of the adolescent bariatric patient's diet pre- and postoperatively. Our objective was to assess the 1-year change in the dietary composition of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery at a tertiary care children's hospital.

Author(s): 
Jeffreys, Renee M.
Hrovat, Kathleen
Woo, Jessica G.
Schmidt, Marcia
Inge, Thomas H.
Xanthakos, Stavra A.
Publication Title: 
Obesity Surgery

Gastric bypass surgery (GBP), in addition to weight loss, results in dramatic remission of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The mechanisms by which this remission occurs are unclear. Besides weight loss and caloric restriction, the changes in gut hormones that occur after GBP are increasingly gaining recognition as key players in glucose control. Incretins are gut peptides that stimulate insulin secretion postprandially; the levels of these hormones, particularly glucagon-like peptide-1, increase after GBP in response to nutrient stimulation.

Author(s): 
Bose, Mousumi
Oliván, Blanca
Teixeira, Julio
Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier
Laferrère, Blandine
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes resolves in 80% of individuals undergoing successful Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Absolute caloric restriction alone resulting from gastric anatomic changes indeed leads to weight loss; however, immediate effects in glycemic control often precede substantial weight loss typically associated with insulin sensitivity. One putative explanation relates to hormonal effects accompanying Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We reviewed the existing and recent literature to investigate the hormonal changes accompanying Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

Author(s): 
Saliba, Jabbar
Wattacheril, Julia
Abumrad, Naji N.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pediatrics

OBJECTIVE: Surgical treatment of extreme obesity may be appropriate for some adolescents. We hypothesized that surgical weight loss outcomes may differ by preoperative level of extreme obesity (body mass index [BMI] > or=99th percentile). STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal assessment of clinical characteristics from 61 adolescents who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at a single pediatric center from 2002 until 2007 was performed.

Author(s): 
Inge, Thomas H.
Jenkins, Todd M.
Zeller, Meg
Dolan, Lawrence
Daniels, Stephen R.
Garcia, Victor F.
Brandt, Mary L.
Bean, Judy
Gamm, Kimberlee
Xanthakos, Stavra A.

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