Gastrointestinal dysmotility in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is prevalent in 90% of patients, increasing morbidity and in some cases mortality. The resultant gastrointestinal complications are usually extensive, involving many regions of the gut from the oesophagus to the anus. Collagen replacement of vascular and enteric smooth muscle results in hypomotility, lumen dilatation, tensile rigidity and eventual loss of organ functions. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of systemic sclerosis-related gastrointestinal dysmotility and available/potential therapeutic options.
AIM: To assess the current clinical evidence of the effectiveness of Xiangshaliujunzi Decoction (XSLJZD) for the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis (DGP). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved from seven major electronic databases including Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and Wanfang Databases, using search dates from the beginning of the databases to May 2013. No language limitations were applied.
Terminalia chebula is a commonly advocated agent in Ayurveda for improving gastrointestinal motility. Charles Foster rats (150-200 gms of either sex) were divided into four groups as follows--Group 1 (n = 15) normal animals; Group II (n = 6) rats administered metoclopramide (1.35 mg/kg); Group III (n = 8) rats given atropine (0.45 mg/kg). These agents were injected intramuscularly, 30 mins before the experiment. Rats from Group IV (n = 8) were administered Terminalia chebula (100 mg/kg/day for 15 days orally).
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet
BACKGROUND: Tri-sa-maw recipe is comprised ofequal proportions of three herbal fruits, including Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia sp. and Terminalia bellirica Roxb. The traditional use of this recipe has been reported as a medication for fever; expectorant, relief of tightness in the stomach, laxative and antidiarrheal agent. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Tri-sa-maw recipe extract on gastrointestinal tract in both in vitro and in vivo.
BACKGROUND: No data are available on the effect of hypnosis on gastric emptying. AIM: To determine the effect of a hypnosis session on gastric emptying and dyspeptic symptoms. METHODS: We studied emptying by ultrasonography and epigastric sensations in 11 healthy subjects and in 15 patients affected by functional dyspepsia under three conditions according to a fixed schedule: (a) basal, (b) after cisapride and (c) during a 90 min hypnotic trance. Eight healthy subjects repeated an emptying study listening to relaxing music.
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a heterogeneous, highly prevalent symptom complex in the community and general practice. FD is defined as the presence of symptoms considered as originated in the gastroduodenal region, in the absence of any organic, systemic, or metabolic disease that is likely to explain the symptoms. Pathogenetic features include disturbed gastric accommodation and emptying, duodenal dysmotility, heightened sensitivity, notably psychosocial disturbances and an association with a postinfective state.
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is common in children, with as many as 80% of those being evaluated for chronic abdominal pain reporting symptoms of epigastric discomfort, nausea, or fullness. It is known that patients with persistent complaints have increased comorbidities such as depression and anxiety. The interaction with psychopathologic variables has been found to mediate the association between upper abdominal pain and gastric hypersensitivity. These observations suggest that abnormal central nervous system processing of gastric stimuli may be a relevant pathophysiologic mechanism in FD.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) have been well studied for antimicrobial, anti-hemorrhagic, and anticancer effects. However, scientific information on RPS regarding the toxic and neuropharmacological effects is limited. In this study, the acute oral toxicity, sedative-hypnotic activity and gastro-intestinal toxicity of RPS were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The acute toxicity was carried out by administering single doses (800-5000 mg/kg) of RPS to adult mice.
BACKGROUND: Gut-directed hypnotherapy is an effective treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but little is known about the mechanisms of action. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects on gastrointestinal motility when treating IBS with gut-directed hypnotherapy. METHODS: We randomized 90 patients with IBS, refractory to standard management to receive gut-directed hypnotherapy 1 h/week for 12 weeks or supportive treatment for the same time period.
Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) is used in Ayurveda for dyspepsia (amlapitta) and as a galactogogue. It was hence compared with a modern drug, metoclopramide, which is used in dyspepsia to reduce gastric emptying time. Gastric emptying half- time (GE t1/2) was studied in 8 healthy male volunteers using a cross-over design. The basal GE t1/2 in volunteers was 159.9 +/- 45.9 min (mean +/- SD) which was reduced to 101 +/- 40.8 min by Shatavari (p less than 0.001) and to 85.3 +/- 21.9 by metoclopramide (p less than 0.001).