Gastrointestinal Agents

Publication Title: 
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Gastrointestinal dysmotility in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is prevalent in 90% of patients, increasing morbidity and in some cases mortality. The resultant gastrointestinal complications are usually extensive, involving many regions of the gut from the oesophagus to the anus. Collagen replacement of vascular and enteric smooth muscle results in hypomotility, lumen dilatation, tensile rigidity and eventual loss of organ functions. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of systemic sclerosis-related gastrointestinal dysmotility and available/potential therapeutic options.

Author(s): 
Sallam, H.
McNearney, T. A.
Chen, J. D. Z.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a chronic gastrointestinal disorder, affects from 3-20% of the US population, depending on sociocultural and comorbid factors. IBS is characterized by a symptom complex of abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits that present as diarrhea or constipation, and general physical weakness in the absence of abnormal morphological, histological or inflammatory markers. The main diagnostic Rome III criteria as established by international professional organizations are based on exclusion criteria and the occurrence and rate of symptoms.

Author(s): 
Grundmann, Oliver
Yoon, Saunjoo L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a chronic gastrointestinal disorder, affects from 3-20% of the US population, depending on sociocultural and comorbid factors. IBS is characterized by a symptom complex of abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits that present as diarrhea or constipation, and general physical weakness in the absence of abnormal morphological, histological or inflammatory markers. The main diagnostic Rome III criteria as established by international professional organizations are based on exclusion criteria and the occurrence and rate of symptoms.

Author(s): 
Grundmann, Oliver
Yoon, Saunjoo L.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Gastroenterology

OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been unable to provide evidence-based guidance on the effects of acupuncture for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) because the only previous systematic review included only small, heterogeneous, and methodologically unsound trials. We conducted a new systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to estimate the effects of acupuncture for treating IBS.

Author(s): 
Manheimer, Eric
Wieland, L. Susan
Cheng, Ke
Li, Shih Min
Shen, Xueyong
Berman, Brian M.
Lao, Lixing
Publication Title: 
World Journal of Gastroenterology

AIM: To assess the current clinical evidence of the effectiveness of Xiangshaliujunzi Decoction (XSLJZD) for the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis (DGP). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved from seven major electronic databases including Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and Wanfang Databases, using search dates from the beginning of the databases to May 2013. No language limitations were applied.

Author(s): 
Tian, Jia-Xing
Li, Min
Liao, Jiang-Quan
Liu, Wen-Ke
Tong, Xiao-Lin
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) has been a worldwide complaint. More effective therapies are needed with fewer adverse effects than are seen with conventional medications. Acupuncture, as a traditional therapeutic method, has been widely used for functional gastrointestinal disorders in the East. Manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture have been recognized treatments for FD, but to date, no robust evidence has been found for the effectiveness and safety of these interventions in the treatment of this condition.

Author(s): 
Lan, Lei
Zeng, Fang
Liu, Guan J.
Ying, Li
Wu, Xi
Liu, Mailan
Liang, Fan-Rong
Publication Title: 
Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, defined as a variable combination of chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms not explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities. It is attributable to the intestine with symptoms of abdominal pain, altered bowel habits and bloating. The diagnosis is primarily based on typical symptoms and prudent use of investigations to exclude organic disorders. The initial positive diagnosis is accurate and on a longterm follow-up its revision rarely required.

Author(s): 
Meier, R.
Meyer, M.
Degen, L.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Medicine

This article reviews briefly the evidence to support current therapies in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the novel therapeutic approaches on the threshold of clinical application. Fiber is indicated at a dose of at least 12 grams per day in patients with constipation-predominant IBS. Loperamide (and probably other opioid agonists) are of proven benefit in diarrhea-predominant IBS; loperamide may also aid continence by enhancing resting anal tone, but there is no evidence that it results in pain relief.

Author(s): 
Camilleri, M.
Publication Title: 
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common condition that a physician faces in the GI clinic. Of the general population, 10 - 25% suffer from symptoms judged to be IBS. The negative impact of this disease includes not only pain, suffering and direct medical expenses but also significant social and job-related consequences. IBS can be the result of dysfunction in any part of the brain-gut axis: alterations in the CNS caused by psychological or other factors, abnormal gastrointestinal motility, or heightened visceral sensations.

Author(s): 
Farhadi, A.
Bruninga, K.
Fields, J.
Keshavarzian, A.
Publication Title: 
Current Gastroenterology Reports

Nonulcer dyspepsia is a common condition in clinical practice. It is a heterogeneous disorder, and no single therapeutic agent is effective in all patients. The treatment of nonulcer dyspepsia is still dissatisfactory. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori organisms has a limited role and little effect. Antisecretory therapy has a modest effect in alleviating symptoms. Prokinetic agents may be effective, but selection bias in the trials performed to date may exaggerate their benefit. Partial 5-HT(4) agonists stimulate gastric emptying and may also affect gastric accommodation.

Author(s): 
Vakil, Nimish

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