Gene Expression Regulation, Viral

Publication Title: 
BMC cancer

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a significant and growing problem worldwide. While this increase may, in part, be attributed to increasing longevity, improved case notifications and risk-enhancing lifestyle (such as smoking, diet and obesity), hygiene-related factors resulting in immuno-regulatory failure may also play a major role and call for a revision of vaccination strategies to protect against a range of cancers in addition to infections. DISCUSSION: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are a significant component of a wider family of retroelements that constitutes part of the human genome.

Author(s): 
Cegolon, Luca
Salata, Cristiano
Weiderpass, Elisabete
Vineis, Paolo
Pal˘, Giorgio
Mastrangelo, Giuseppe
Publication Title: 
PLoS pathogens

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. First described as posttranscriptional gene regulators in eukaryotic hosts, virus-encoded miRNAs were later uncovered. It is now apparent that diverse virus families, most with DNA genomes, but at least some with RNA genomes, encode miRNAs. While deciphering the functions of viral miRNAs has lagged behind their discovery, recent functional studies are bringing into focus these roles.

Author(s): 
Kincaid, Rodney P.
Sullivan, Christopher S.
Publication Title: 
BMC cancer

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a significant and growing problem worldwide. While this increase may, in part, be attributed to increasing longevity, improved case notifications and risk-enhancing lifestyle (such as smoking, diet and obesity), hygiene-related factors resulting in immuno-regulatory failure may also play a major role and call for a revision of vaccination strategies to protect against a range of cancers in addition to infections. DISCUSSION: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are a significant component of a wider family of retroelements that constitutes part of the human genome.

Author(s): 
Cegolon, Luca
Salata, Cristiano
Weiderpass, Elisabete
Vineis, Paolo
Pal˘, Giorgio
Mastrangelo, Giuseppe
Publication Title: 
Virology Journal

BACKGROUND: Glycyrrhizin (GA) and primary metabolite 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA) are pharmacologically active components of the medicinal licorice root, and both have been shown to have antiviral and immunomodulatory properties. Although these properties are well established, the mechanisms of action are not completely understood. In this study, GA and GRA were tested for the ability to inhibit rotavirus replication in cell culture, toward a long term goal of discovering natural compounds that may complement existing vaccines.

Author(s): 
Hardy, Michele E.
Hendricks, Jay M.
Paulson, Jeana M.
Faunce, Nicholas R.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Despite the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) against HIV-1, evidence indicates that residual infection persists in different cell types. Intensification of cART does not decrease the residual viral load or immune activation. cART restricts the synthesis of infectious virus but does not curtail HIV-1 transcription and translation from either the integrated or unintegrated viral genomes in infected cells. All treated patients with full viral suppression actually have low-level viremia.

Author(s): 
Mehla, Rajeev
Bivalkar-Mehla, Shalmali
Chauhan, Ashok
Publication Title: 
PloS One

In the field of herpesvirus research, the exact molecular mechanism by which such viruses reactivate from latency remains elusive. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) primarily exists in a latent state, while only 1-3% of cells support lytic infection at any specific time. KSHV reactivation from latency is an exceedingly intricate process mediated by the integration of viral and cellular factors.

Author(s): 
Dyson, Ossie F.
Walker, Lia R.
Whitehouse, Adrian
Cook, Paul P.
Akula, Shaw M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine = Chung I Tsa Chih Ying Wen Pan / Sponsored by All-China Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect on influenza virus of Jinchai, a capsule made of Traditional Chinese Medicine. METHODS: Madin-darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were infected with the FM1 strain of influenza virus A (subtype H1N1) in vitro. They were used to explore how Jinchai affected cell adsorption, cell membrane fusion, transcription and replication of the influenza virus. Hemagglutinin (HA) protein, intracellular pH, and influenza virus protein acid (PA) polymerase subunit were detected with confocal microscopy and real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Author(s): 
Zhong, Juying
Cui, Xiaolan
Shi, Yujing
Gao, Yingjie
Cao, Hongxin
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