Genes, Fungal

Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

P. anserina mutants with impairments in complex IV (COX) of the respiratory chain are characterized by an increase in lifespan. Examples are the nuclear grisea mutant with a moderate lifespan extension (60%) and the immortal extranuclear ex1 mutant. Here we report data demonstrating that in mutant ex1 the level of the alternative oxidase (PaAOX) is significantly higher than in mutant grisea. PaAOX levels appear to be reversely dependent on COX activity.

Author(s): 
Borghouts, Corina
Scheckhuber, Christian Q.
Werner, Alexandra
Osiewacz, Heinz D.
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)
Author(s): 
Strauss, Evelyn
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal four processes determining life span: metabolism, stress resistance, chromatin-dependent gene regulation, and genome stability. The retrograde response, which signals mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in changes in nuclear gene expression, extends yeast life span and is induced during normal aging. This response involves extensive metabolic adaptations. The retrograde response links metabolism and genome stability during yeast aging. A reduction in the availability of nutrients also extends yeast life span.

Author(s): 
Jazwinski, S. Michal
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA by copying an internal RNA template sequence. The telomerase activities of the yeasts Saccharomyces castellii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae--with regular and irregular telomeric sequences, respectively--have now been identified and characterized. The S. cerevisiae activity required the telomerase RNA gene TLC1 but not the EST1 gene, both of which are required for normal telomere maintenance in vivo. This activity exhibited low processivity and produced no regularly repeated products.

Author(s): 
Cohn, M.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Chromosome ends in the lower eukaryotes terminate in variable numbers of tandem, simple DNA repeats. We tested predictions of a model in which these telomeric repeats provide a substrate for the addition of more repeats by a terminal transferase-like mechanism that, in concert with DNA polymerase and primase, effectively counterbalances the loss of DNA due to degradation or incomplete replication.

Author(s): 
Shampay, J.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA by copying an internal RNA template sequence. The telomerase activities of the yeasts Saccharomyces castellii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae--with regular and irregular telomeric sequences, respectively--have now been identified and characterized. The S. cerevisiae activity required the telomerase RNA gene TLC1 but not the EST1 gene, both of which are required for normal telomere maintenance in vivo. This activity exhibited low processivity and produced no regularly repeated products.

Author(s): 
Cohn, M.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Nature

The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase adds telomeric DNA onto chromosome ends and is normally regulated so that telomeric DNA lengths are kept within defined bounds. In the telomerase RNA gene from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, specific mutations that alter telomeric DNA sequences result in telomeres elongating to up to 100 times their normal length and impair cell growth. Some mutations cause immediate elongation whereas others behave like genetic time bombs, causing elongation only after a latent period of hundreds of generations.

Author(s): 
McEachern, M. J.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Chromosome ends in the lower eukaryotes terminate in variable numbers of tandem, simple DNA repeats. We tested predictions of a model in which these telomeric repeats provide a substrate for the addition of more repeats by a terminal transferase-like mechanism that, in concert with DNA polymerase and primase, effectively counterbalances the loss of DNA due to degradation or incomplete replication.

Author(s): 
Shampay, J.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

The telomerase ribonucleoprotein has a phylogenetically divergent RNA subunit, which contains a short template for telomeric DNA synthesis. To understand how telomerase RNA participates in mechanistic aspects of telomere synthesis, we studied a conserved secondary structure adjacent to the template. Disruption of this structure caused DNA synthesis to proceed beyond the normal template boundary, resulting in altered telomere sequences, telomere shortening, and cellular growth defects. Compensatory mutations restored normal telomerase function.

Author(s): 
Tzfati, Y.
Fulton, T. B.
Roy, J.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Genes & Development

Deletion of the telomerase RNA gene (TER1) in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis results in gradual loss of telomeric repeats and progressively declining cell growth capability (growth senescence). We show that this initial growth senescence is characterized by abnormally large, defectively dividing cells and is delayed when cells initially contain elongated telomeres. However, cells that survive the initial catastrophic senescence emerge relatively frequently, and their subsequent growth without telomerase is surprisingly efficient.

Author(s): 
McEachern, M. J.
Blackburn, E. H.

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