The mitochondrial free radical theory of aging proposes that aging is a consequence of progressive mitochondrial dysfunction caused by lifelong accumulation of oxidative damage. Aging is therefore expected to accelerate if the rate of this oxidative damage accumulation increases. Studies attempting to test this prediction through modulation of oxidative damage by altering antioxidant defenses have reported conflicting results.
A tenet of life history evolution is that allocation of limited resources results in trade-offs, such as that between reproduction and lifespan. Reproduction and lifespan are also influenced proximately by differences in the availability of specific nutrients. What is unknown is how the evolution of the ability to use a nutritionally novel diet is reflected in this fundamental trade-off. Does the evolution of the ability to use a nutritionally novel food maintain the trade-off in reproduction and longevity, or do the proximate effects of nutrition alter the adapted trade-off?
The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry
According to evolutionary psychologists humans possess a variety of "sexual ornaments," physical as well as psychological traits that have evolved as adaptations for reproductive advantage. These sexual ornaments serve as sexually selected indicators of fitness that are automatically assessed, inspire attentional adhesion, and evoke sexual desire in those searching for a mate. Mate choice is therefore determined by the relative presence or absence of these sexually selected indicators of fitness in comparison to the competition.
Why do people donate blood? Altruism is the common answer. However, altruism is a complex construct and to answer this question requires a systematic analysis of the insights from the biology, economics and psychology of altruism. I term this the mechanism of altruism (MOA) approach and apply it here for understanding blood donor motivation. The answer also has enormous implications for the type of interventions we choose to adopt as a society.
Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness showed how natural selection could lead to behaviors that decrease the relative fitness of the actor and also either benefit (altruism) or harm (spite) other individuals. However, several fundamental issues in the evolution of altruism and spite have remained contentious.
Where there is genetically based variation in selfishness and altruism, as in man, altruists with an innate ability to recognise and thereby only help their altruistic relatives may evolve. Here we use diploid population genetic models to chart the evolution of genetically-based discrimination in populations initially in stable equilibrium between altruism and selfishness. The initial stable equilibria occur because help is assumed subject to diminishing returns.
In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century.
William D. Hamilton postulated the existence of 'genes underlying altruism', under the rubric of inclusive fitness theory, a half-century ago. Such genes are now poised for discovery. In this article, we develop a set of intuitive criteria for the recognition and analysis of genes for altruism and describe the first candidate genes affecting altruism from social insects and humans. We also provide evidence from a human population for genetically based trade-offs, underlain by oxytocin-system polymorphisms, between alleles for altruism and alleles for non-social cognition.
The kin selection hypothesis posits that male androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction to males), although detrimental to reproduction (i.e., direct fitness), has persisted and evolved because androphilic males compensate by increasing their indirect fitness via increased investment in kin. In previous studies, Samoan androphilic males (known locally as fa'afafine) reported elevated avuncular (i.e., uncle-like) tendencies compared to Samoan gynephilic (i.e., sexually attracted to females) men.