Eighty-two people dating from 1975 to 1879 compared with 182 modern middle-class White and Black skeletons test the myths of radical changes produced by improved diet, less disease, and nineteenth century immigration. Longevity increases and health and growth improvement is clearest in reduced juvenile deaths (census data) and deepening of true pelvis. Stature increase is minimal (though seventeenth century Londoners and modern West Africans are shorter than Colonial to Modern Americans); teeth deteriorate and for cultural reasons fractures increase. Clavicles and forearms elongate.
Where should we look to find the causes of and cure for aging? This essay considers a number of scientific discoveries, not yet made, that might dramatically increase the proportion of biogerontologists doing useful work. I will consider, in turn, problems and prospects in the areas of comparative biology, mammalian and invertebrate genetics, biomarker research, caloric restriction, and clonal senescence and then conclude with a discussion of potential links between aging and late life disease.
OBJECTIVE: Burnout is high among clinicians and may relate to loss of "meaning" in patient care. We sought to develop and validate a measure of "personal meaning" that practitioners derive from patient care. METHODS: As part of a larger study of well-being among genetics professionals, we conducted three focus groups of clinical genetics professionals: physicians, nurses and genetic counselors (N=29). Participants were asked: "What gives you meaning in patient care?" Eight themes were identified, converted into Likert items, and included in a questionnaire.
Biomedical researchers often assume that sponsors, subjects, families, and disease-associated advocacy groups contribute to research solely because of altruism. This view fails to capture the diverse interests of many participants in the emerging research enterprise. In the past two decades, patient groups have become increasingly active in the promotion and facilitation of genetics research. Simultaneously, a significant shift of academic biomedical science toward commercialization has occurred, spurred by U.S. federal policy changes.
Despite hundreds of published articles about humankind's eusocial behaviours, most scholars still regard the origin of human altruism and cooperation as an enduring puzzle, because it seems incompatible with two central tenets of evolution, namely, the competition between individuals and the consequent selective advantages of selfish traits. This "puzzle", however, rather than being due to insurmountable scientific difficulties, is to be attributed to two powerful ideologies, which are politically opposite, but nevertheless concurred to prevent scholars from solving it.