Genetics, Population

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

Aging is a natural process that involves a general decline in many physiological functions, resulting in loss of function and eventually death. Extensive research is being performed in order to elucidate the biology of aging, especially with the advent of newer molecular and genetic methodologies. The endocrine system plays a major role in orchestrating cellular interactions, metabolism, growth, and senescence. Thus, researchers traditionally used hormones as tools to induce and examine specific biological effects that are associated with aging.

Author(s): 
Barzilai, Nir
Gabriely, Ilan
Atzmon, Gil
Suh, Yousin
Rothenberg, Devorah
Bergman, Aviv
Publication Title: 
Rejuvenation Research

Long-living individuals (LLIs) are used to study exceptional longevity. A number of genetic variants have been found associated in LLIs to date, but further identification of variants would improve knowledge on the mechanisms regulating the rate of aging. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study on 410 LLIs and 553 young control individuals with a 317K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip to identify novel traits associated with aging.

Author(s): 
Malovini, Alberto
Illario, Maddalena
Iaccarino, Guido
Villa, Francesco
Ferrario, Anna
Roncarati, Roberta
Anselmi, Chiara Viviani
Novelli, Valeria
Cipolletta, Ersilia
Leggiero, Eleonora
Orro, Alessandro
Rusciano, Maria Rosaria
Milanesi, Luciano
Maione, Angela Serena
Condorelli, Gianluigi
Bellazzi, Riccardo
Puca, Annibale A.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

The single nucleotide polymorphism, rs2866164, in the MTP gene, has been associated with human longevity but has not been validated by subsequent longevity studies. Using our population of Ashkenazi Jews, we find that the MTP CC genotype is significantly overrepresented in centenarians and their offspring, as compared with controls (p < .05). However, when we examined MTP CC genotype frequency pattern with aging, we observed a monotonic decline between ages 55-85 years followed by a dramatic enrichment after age 90 years, forming a U-shape pattern (p < .05).

Author(s): 
Huffman, Derek M.
Deelen, Joris
Ye, Kenny
Bergman, Aviv
Slagboom, Eline P.
Barzilai, Nir
Atzmon, Gil
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Studies in humans suggest that leukocyte telomere length may act as a marker of biological aging. We investigated whether individuals in the Nicoya region of Costa Rica, known for exceptional longevity, had longer telomere length than those in other parts of the country. After controlling for age, age squared, rurality, rainy season and gender, the mean leukocyte telomere length in Nicoya was substantially longer (81 base pairs, p<0.05) than in other areas of Costa Rica, providing evidence of a biological pathway to which this notable longevity may be related.

Author(s): 
Rehkopf, David H.
Dow, William H.
Rosero-Bixby, Luis
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa S.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Studies in humans suggest that leukocyte telomere length may act as a marker of biological aging. We investigated whether individuals in the Nicoya region of Costa Rica, known for exceptional longevity, had longer telomere length than those in other parts of the country. After controlling for age, age squared, rurality, rainy season and gender, the mean leukocyte telomere length in Nicoya was substantially longer (81 base pairs, p<0.05) than in other areas of Costa Rica, providing evidence of a biological pathway to which this notable longevity may be related.

Author(s): 
Rehkopf, David H.
Dow, William H.
Rosero-Bixby, Luis
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa S.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Studies in humans suggest that leukocyte telomere length may act as a marker of biological aging. We investigated whether individuals in the Nicoya region of Costa Rica, known for exceptional longevity, had longer telomere length than those in other parts of the country. After controlling for age, age squared, rurality, rainy season and gender, the mean leukocyte telomere length in Nicoya was substantially longer (81 base pairs, p<0.05) than in other areas of Costa Rica, providing evidence of a biological pathway to which this notable longevity may be related.

Author(s): 
Rehkopf, David H.
Dow, William H.
Rosero-Bixby, Luis
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa S.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Studies in humans suggest that leukocyte telomere length may act as a marker of biological aging. We investigated whether individuals in the Nicoya region of Costa Rica, known for exceptional longevity, had longer telomere length than those in other parts of the country. After controlling for age, age squared, rurality, rainy season and gender, the mean leukocyte telomere length in Nicoya was substantially longer (81 base pairs, p<0.05) than in other areas of Costa Rica, providing evidence of a biological pathway to which this notable longevity may be related.

Author(s): 
Rehkopf, David H.
Dow, William H.
Rosero-Bixby, Luis
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa S.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

A condition is derived for reciprocal altruism to evolve by kin or group selection. It is assumed that many additively acting genes of small effect and the environment determine the probability that an individual is a reciprocal altruist, as opposed to being unconditionally selfish. The particular form of reciprocal altruism considered is TIT FOR TAT, a strategy that involves being altruistic on the first encounter with another individual and doing whatever the other did on the previous encounter in subsequent encounters with the same individual.

Author(s): 
Aoki, K.
Publication Title: 
New Genetics and Society

This article considers how we should frame the ethical issues raised by current proposals for large-scale genebanks with on-going links to medical and lifestyle data, such as the Wellcome Trust and Medical Research Council's 'UK Biobank'. As recent scandals such as Alder Hey have emphasised, there are complex issues concerning the informed consent of donors that need to be carefully considered.

Author(s): 
Williams, Garrath
Schroeder, Doris
Publication Title: 
Theoretical Population Biology

The ubiquity of cooperation has motivated a major research program over the last 50 years to discover ever more minimal conditions for the evolution of altruism. One important line of work is based on favoritism toward those who appear to be close relatives. Another important line is based on continuing interactions, whether between individuals (e.g., reciprocity) or between lines of descent in a viscous population.

Author(s): 
Hammond, Ross A.
Axelrod, Robert

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