Genistein

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Membrane Biology

Soy isoflavone's (genistein and daidzein in particular) biological significance has been thoroughly studied for decades, so we started from the premise that refreshed investigation approach in this field should consider identification of their new molecular targets. In addition to recently described epigenetic aspects of polyphenole action, the cell membrane constituents-mediated effects of soy isoflavones are worthy of special attention.

Author(s): 
Ajdûanovi?, Vladimir
Medigovi?, Ivana
éivanovi?, Jasmina
Moji?, Marija
Miloöevi?, Verica
Publication Title: 
Frontiers in Bioscience: A Journal and Virtual Library

The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing rapidly in developed countries, which is already in use as traditional medicines in various Asian countries. The Indian system of medicine, named as Ayurveda has an edge in this field. Many plant products are in use as herbal medicine, as food supplement or as spices, in every day cooking. Some of them have been well studied in various experimental models of cancer, both in vivo and in vitro models. They have shown significant inhibition of cell proliferation.

Author(s): 
Tripathi, Yamini B.
Tripathi, Pratibha
Arjmandi, Behram H.
Publication Title: 
Frontiers in Bioscience: A Journal and Virtual Library

The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing rapidly in developed countries, which is already in use as traditional medicines in various Asian countries. The Indian system of medicine, named as Ayurveda has an edge in this field. Many plant products are in use as herbal medicine, as food supplement or as spices, in every day cooking. Some of them have been well studied in various experimental models of cancer, both in vivo and in vitro models. They have shown significant inhibition of cell proliferation.

Author(s): 
Tripathi, Yamini B.
Tripathi, Pratibha
Arjmandi, Behram H.
Publication Title: 
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals

The purpose of present study was to determine the intestinal absorption and metabolism of genistein and its analogs to better understand the mechanisms responsible for their low oral bioavailability. The Caco-2 cell culture model and a perfused rat intestinal model were used for the study. In both models, permeabilities of aglycones (e.g., genistein) were comparable to well absorbed compounds, such as testosterone and propranolol.

Author(s): 
Liu, Yan
Hu, Ming
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of intestinal disposition in the first-pass metabolism of flavonoids. A four-site perfused rat intestinal model, rat liver and intestinal microsomes, Caco-2 cell microsomes, and the Caco-2 cell culture model were used. In the four-site model, approximately 28% of perfused aglycones are absorbed (approximately 450 nmol/30 min). Both absorption and subsequent excretion of metabolites were rapid and site-dependent (p < 0.05).

Author(s): 
Chen, Jun
Lin, Huimin
Hu, Ming
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

We evaluated the role of dietary phytoestrogens (PE) in the disease phenotype of cold intolerance that characterizes long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient (LCAD-/-) mice, a model of inborn errors of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. Male LCAD-/- mice were fed a standard diet containing endogenous PE, a PE-free diet, or a PE-free diet that was supplemented with genistein (250 microg/g diet). The standard diet did not restore complete cold tolerance, but it provided more resistance (P = 0.004) to cold challenge than the PE-free diet.

Author(s): 
Schuler, A. Michele
Barnes, Stephen
Gower, Barbara A.
Wood, Philip A.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

The weak estrogen-like properties of isoflavonoids were discovered over 50 y ago. In recent years, the overall effects of the isoflavones in soy on human health have been the subject of lively debate largely based on their presumed estrogenic properties. Missing from our knowledge base is the systematic identification of the cellular and biochemical targets of isoflavones and the mechanisms that they influence.

Author(s): 
Barnes, Stephen
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Many popular dietary supplements are enriched in polyphenols such as the soy isoflavones, tea catechins, and resveratrol (from grape skins), each of which has been shown to have chemopreventive activity in cellular models of cancer. The proanthocyanidins, which are oligomers of the catechins, are enriched in grape seeds and form the basis of the dietary supplement grape seed extract (GSE). Evidence suggests that the proanthocyanidins may be metabolized to the monomeric catechins.

Author(s): 
Kim, Helen
Hall, Patti
Smith, Michelle
Kirk, Marion
Prasain, Jeevan K.
Barnes, Stephen
Grubbs, Clinton
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Several clinical trials have suggested that soy intake decreases oxidative stress. Soy isoflavones have antioxidant properties in vitro, but results of supplementation in clinical trials are inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the independent effects of soy protein and soy-derived isoflavones on plasma antioxidant capacity and biomarkers of oxidative stress. DESIGN: Forty-two hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol > 3.36 mmol/L) subjects aged >50 y were provided with each of 4 diets in random order in a crossover design.

Author(s): 
Vega-López, Sonia
Yeum, Kyung-Jin
Lecker, Jaime L.
Ausman, Lynne M.
Johnson, Elizabeth J.
Devaraj, Sridevi
Jialal, Ishwarlal
Lichtenstein, Alice H.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

The antiatherogenic effects of soy isoflavone consumption have been demonstrated in a variety of studies. However, the mechanisms involved remain poorly defined. Adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelial cells is a key step within the inflammatory cascade that leads to atherogenesis. Many factors, including the physical forces associated with blood flow, regulate this process.

Author(s): 
Chacko, Balu K.
Chandler, Robert T.
Mundhekar, Ameya
Khoo, Nicholas
Pruitt, Heather M.
Kucik, Dennis F.
Parks, Dale A.
Kevil, Christopher G.
Barnes, Stephen
Patel, Rakesh P.

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