Genotype

Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Larval feeding with curcumin induces an extended health span with significantly increased median and maximum longevities in the adult fly. This phenotype is diet insensitive and shows no additive effect on longevity when combined with an adult dietary restriction (DR) diet, suggesting that curcumin and DR operate via the same or overlapping pathways for this trait. This treatment significantly slows the aging rate so that it is comparable with that of genetically selected long lived animals.

Author(s): 
Soh, Jung-Won
Marowsky, Nicholas
Nichols, Thomas J.
Rahman, Abid M.
Miah, Tayaba
Sarao, Paraminder
Khasawneh, Rawia
Unnikrishnan, Archana
Heydari, Ahmad R.
Silver, Robert B.
Arking, Robert
Publication Title: 
CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne

BACKGROUND: Low levels of 25(OH) vitamin D are associated with various age-related diseases and mortality, but causality has not been determined. We investigated vitamin D levels in the offspring of nonagenarians who had at least one nonagenarian sibling; these offspring have a lower prevalence of age-related diseases and a higher propensity to reach old age compared with their partners.

Author(s): 
Noordam, Raymond
de Craen, Anton J. M.
Pedram, Pardis
Maier, Andrea B.
Mooijaart, Simon P.
van Pelt, Johannes
Feskens, Edith J.
Streppel, Martinette T.
Slagboom, P. Eline
Westendorp, Rudi G. J.
Beekman, Marian
van Heemst, Diana
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, extends the life span of yeast, worms, flies, and mice. Interventions that promote longevity are often correlated with increased insulin sensitivity, and it therefore is surprising that chronic rapamycin treatment of mice, rats, and humans is associated with insulin resistance (J Am Soc Nephrol., 19, 2008, 1411; Diabetes, 00, 2010, 00; Science, 335, 2012, 1638).

Author(s): 
Lamming, Dudley W.
Ye, Lan
Astle, Clinton M.
Baur, Joseph A.
Sabatini, David M.
Harrison, David E.
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Dietary restriction (DR) increases lifespan and attenuates age-related phenotypes in many organisms; however, the effect of DR on longevity of individuals in genetically heterogeneous populations is not well characterized. Here, we describe a large-scale effort to define molecular mechanisms that underlie genotype-specific responses to DR. The effect of DR on lifespan was determined for 166 single gene deletion strains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Resulting changes in mean lifespan ranged from a reduction of 79% to an increase of 103%.

Author(s): 
Schleit, Jennifer
Johnson, Simon C.
Bennett, Christopher F.
Simko, Marissa
Trongtham, Natalie
Castanza, Anthony
Hsieh, Edward J.
Moller, Richard M.
Wasko, Brian M.
Delaney, Joe R.
Sutphin, George L.
Carr, Daniel
Murakami, Christopher J.
Tocchi, Autumn
Xian, Bo
Chen, Weiyang
Yu, Tao
Goswami, Sarani
Higgins, Sean
Holmberg, Mollie
Jeong, Ki-Soo
Kim, Jin R.
Klum, Shannon
Liao, Eric
Lin, Michael S.
Lo, Winston
Miller, Hillary
Olsen, Brady
Peng, Zhao J.
Pollard, Tom
Pradeep, Prarthana
Pruett, Dillon
Rai, Dilreet
Ros, Vanessa
Singh, Minnie
Spector, Benjamin L.
Vander Wende, Helen
An, Elroy H.
Fletcher, Marissa
Jelic, Monika
Rabinovitch, Peter S.
MacCoss, Michael J.
Han, Jing-Dong J.
Kennedy, Brian K.
Kaeberlein, Matt
Publication Title: 
BMC biology

BACKGROUND: Juvenile hormone (JH) has been demonstrated to control adult lifespan in a number of non-model insects where surgical removal of the corpora allata eliminates the hormone's source. In contrast, little is known about how juvenile hormone affects adult Drosophila melanogaster. Previous work suggests that insulin signaling may modulate Drosophila aging in part through its impact on juvenile hormone titer, but no data yet address whether reduction of juvenile hormone is sufficient to control Drosophila life span.

Author(s): 
Yamamoto, Rochele
Bai, Hua
Dolezal, Adam G.
Amdam, Gro
Tatar, Marc
Publication Title: 
Molecular Biology of the Cell

Mutation of the template region in the RNA component of telomerase can cause incorporation of mutant DNA sequences at telomeres. We made all 63 mutant sequence combinations at template positions 474-476 of the yeast telomerase RNA, TLC1. Mutants contained faithfully incorporated template mutations, as well as misincorporated sequences in telomeres, a phenotype not previously reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase template mutants. Although growth rates and telomere profiles varied widely among the tlc1 mutants, chromosome separation and segregation were always aberrant.

Author(s): 
Lin, Jue
Smith, Dana L.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Apolipoprotein-?4 (APOE-?4) is a major genetic risk factor for cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and early mortality. An accelerated rate of biological aging could contribute to this increased risk. Here, we determined whether APOE-?4 status impacts leukocyte telomere length (TL) and the rate of cellular senescence in healthy mid-life women and, further, whether hormone replacement therapy (HT) modifies this association. Post-menopausal women (N?=?63, Mean age?=?57.7), all HT users for at least one year, were enrolled in a randomized longitudinal study.

Author(s): 
Jacobs, Emily G.
Kroenke, Candyce
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa S.
Kenna, Heather A.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Rasgon, Natalie L.
Publication Title: 
Genetics

The abundant rDNA minichromosome of Tetrahymena thermophila is generated by a series of developmentally controlled processing steps, termed rDNA maturation, during the formation of the new macronucleus in conjugating cells. rDNA maturation involves excision of a region encoding the single copy rRNA gene (rDNA) from its germline location, rearrangement of the rDNA into a palindromic minichromosome, de novo telomere addition, and amplification to approximately 10(4) copies. The rDNA is maintained at this high level in vegetatively growing cells.

Author(s): 
Kapler, G. M.
Orias, E.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Genetics

The abundant rDNA minichromosome of Tetrahymena thermophila is generated by a series of developmentally controlled processing steps, termed rDNA maturation, during the formation of the new macronucleus in conjugating cells. rDNA maturation involves excision of a region encoding the single copy rRNA gene (rDNA) from its germline location, rearrangement of the rDNA into a palindromic minichromosome, de novo telomere addition, and amplification to approximately 10(4) copies. The rDNA is maintained at this high level in vegetatively growing cells.

Author(s): 
Kapler, G. M.
Orias, E.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Genes & Development

Human TRF1-binding protein PinX1 inhibits telomerase activity. Here we report that overexpression of yeast PinX1p (yPinX1p) results in shortened telomeres and decreased in vitro telomerase activity. yPinX1p coimmunoprecipitated with yeast telomerase protein Est2p even in cells lacking the telomerase RNA TLC1, or the telomerase-associated proteins Est1p and Est3p. Est2p regions required for binding to yPinX1p or TLC1 were similar. Furthermore, we found two distinct Est2p complexes exist, containing either yPinX1p or TLC1.

Author(s): 
Lin, Jue
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

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