OBJECTIVE: To examine the rate of spontaneous twinning in selected countries in order to evaluate the impact of environmental stress and related socioeconomic factors on balancing reproductive activity and longevity. STUDY DESIGN: Four countries with similar ancestry were considered, 2 in Africa and 2 in the Caribbean. Data on gross domestic product per capita, as a measure of indigenous conditions, access to proper diet, health care, sanitation and shelter were compared with the relative rate of twinning.
Since the late 1970s when the first cases of HIV/AIDS were identified in Africa, there has been an upsurge of research on the epidemic. Although religious involvement may be germane to AIDS protective and risk behavior, few of these studies deal with religion and AIDS. This article contributes to the discourse on religion and health in Africa by analysing the interrelationship between religion and AIDS behavior in Ghana, a West African country at the early stages of the AIDS epidemic, and one where religious activities are more pronounced.
BACKGROUND: Low utilization of health and nutrition services is a major setback to the attainment of ultimate health of many populations in developing countries including Ghana. Primary health care (PHC) forms the basis for the provision of good quality and sustainable health care and making it accessible to the majority of the population. In line with this, the Catholic Relief Services spearheaded a Development Assistance Programme for the 2004-08 financial year in the northern sector of Ghana. The primary beneficiaries were children in their early years and pregnant and lactating women.
This article documents the historical factors that led to shifts in mission work toward a greater emphasis on community health for the poor and most vulnerable of society in sub-Saharan Africa after 1945. Using the example of the Medical Mission Sisters from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and their work in Ghana, we challenge the conventional narrative of medical missions as agents of imperialism.
This paper recounts and reflects on conversations about love and sexuality conducted with young people in Kumasi and Endwa, Ghana. It examines the settings of these conversations - in a kinship-based household, secondary schools and Pentecostal churches - and explores young people's reticence to talk about such matters in the light of intergenerational respect.
In this article I discuss the role of money vis-‡-vis health care among the Dagomba, an agrarian people living in northern Ghana, whose pluralistic medical culture involves the use of both plants and Western pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various symptoms. In Dagomba society monetary exchanges in the domain of healing cannot be equated with self-interest, and nonmonetary exchanges cannot be compared with altruism in any straightforward fashion. Exchanges and their purposes are made meaningful by the contexts in which they occur. Exchanges may involve money and be commoditized.
Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
INTRODUCTION: Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. METHODS: An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008.
Community health workers (CHWs) are an important element of many health systems and programmes for the promotion and delivery of a wide range of health interventions and disease surveillance. Understanding the motivation and retention of CHWs is recognized as essential but there are few data from sub-Saharan Africa.
We report the first detailed pharmacokinetic assessment of intrarectal (i.r.) artesunate (ARS) in African children. Artesunate was given intravenously (i.v.; 2.4 mg/kg of body weight) and i.r. (10 or 20 mg/kg formulated as 50- or 200-mg suppositories [Rectocaps]) in a crossover study design to 34 Ghanaian children with moderate falciparum malaria. The median relative bioavailability of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the active antimalarial metabolite of ARS, was higher in the low-dose i.r. group (10 mg/kg) than in the high-dose i.r. group (20 mg/kg) (58 versus 23%; P = 0.018).
Recently, Ghana has changed the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria from chloroquine to amodiaquine (AQ) plus artesunate. AQ may cause adverse events such as agranulocytosis and hepatoxicity. The pro-drug AQ is transformed by cytochrome P450 CYP2C8 to the active metabolite N-desethylaminodiaquine. Several polymorphic variants of CYP2C8 are known, some with reduced activity. In 200 randomly selected children from Northern Ghana, we determined the allele frequencies of the CYP2C8 variants CYP2C8*1 (wild type), CYP2C8*2, CYP2C8*3, and CYP2C8*4.