Bilobalide, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba, has neuroprotective properties. Its mechanism of action is unknown but it was recently found to block GABA(A) receptors. The goal of this study was to test the potential role of a GABAergic mechanism for the neuroprotective activity of bilobalide. In rat hippocampal slices exposed to NMDA, release of choline indicates breakdown of membrane phospholipids. NMDA-induced choline release was almost completely blocked in the presence of bilobalide (10 microM) and under low-chloride conditions.
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Amyloid-beta (Abeta) toxicity has been postulated to initiate synaptic loss and subsequent neuronal degeneration seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously demonstrated that the standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, commonly used to enhance memory and by AD patients for dementia, inhibits Abeta-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we use EGb 761 and its single constituents to associate Abeta species with Abeta-induced pathological behaviors in a model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on delaying the progression to cognitive impairment in normal elderly aged 85 and older. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 42-month pilot study with 118 cognitively intact subjects randomized to standardized GBE or placebo. Kaplan-Meier estimation, Cox proportional hazard, and random-effects models were used to compare the risk of progression from Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) = 0 to CDR = 0.5 and decline in episodic memory function between GBE and placebo groups.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ginkgo biloba extracts are now prescribed in several countries for their reported health benefits, particularly for medicinal properties in the brain. The standardized Ginkgo extract, EGb761, has been reported to protect neurons against oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. METHODS: To characterize the oral consumption of EGb761 in transient ischemia, we performed the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) filament model in wild-type and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) knockouts.
BACKGROUND: Dysfunctions in the serotonergic system have been implicated in several neurological disorders such as depression. Elderly individuals who have been diagnosed with clinical depression show elevated cases of neurodegenerative diseases. This has led to suggestions that modulating the serotonin (5-HT) system could provide an alternative method to current therapies for alleviating these pathologies. The neuroprotective effects of bilobalide in vitro have been documented. We aim to determine whether bilobalide affects the 5-HT system in the nematode C. elegans.
Neuroprotective properties of bilobalide, a specific constituent of Ginkgo extracts, were tested in a mouse model of stroke. After 24h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), bilobalide reduced infarct areas in the core region (striatum) by 40-50% when given at 10mg/kg 1h prior to MCAO. Neuroprotection was also observed at lower doses, or when the drug was given 1h past stroke induction. Sensorimotor function in mice was improved by bilobalide as shown by corner and chimney tests.
Ginkgo biloba/EGb 761® (EGb 761) is a popular and standardized natural extract used worldwide for the treatment of many ailments. Although EGb 761 is purported to have a plethora of benefits, here, we were interested to study the neuroprotective properties of EGb 761 and its components and determine whether nuclear factor E2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) induction of the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) pathway contributes to neuroprotection.
Terpene lactones such as bilobalide, ginkgolides A, B, C, and J are major bioactive compounds of Ginkgo biloba L. Purification of these compounds is tedious due to their similar chemical properties. For the purpose of developing an effective and efficient method for both analytical and preparative separation of terpene lactones in G. biloba, an innovative orthogonality-enhanced high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established.
The complete and unambiguous (1)H NMR assignments of ten marker constituents of Ginkgo biloba are described. The comprehensive (1)H NMR profiles (fingerprints) of ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide J, bilobalide, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, isoquercetin, and rutin in DMSO-d(6) were obtained through the examination of 1D (1)H NMR and 2D (1)H,(1)H-COSY data, in combination with (1)H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA).
INTRODUCTION: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is increasingly employed in the quantitative analysis and quality control (QC) of natural products (NP) including botanical dietary supplements (BDS). The establishment of QC protocols based on quantitative (1) H NMR (qHNMR) requires method validation. OBJECTIVE: Develop and validate a generic qHNMR method. Optimize acquisition and processing parameters, with specific attention to the requirements for the analysis of complex NP samples, including botanicals and purity assessment of NP isolates.