Ginsenosides

Publication Title: 
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals

Ginseng extract has been reported to decrease the incidence of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated tumorigenesis in mice. A potential mechanism for this effect by ginseng is inhibition of DMBA-bioactivating cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. In the present in vitro study, we examined the effect of a standardized Panax ginseng (or Asian ginseng) extract (G115), a standardized Panax quinquefolius (or North American ginseng) extract (NAGE), and individual ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, and Rg1) on CYP1 catalytic activities, as assessed by 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation.

Author(s): 
Chang, Thomas K. H.
Chen, Jie
Benetton, Salete A.
Publication Title: 
Diabetes

We evaluated antihyperglycemic and anti-obese effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and its major constituent, ginsenoside Re, in obese diabetic C57BL/6J ob/ ob mice and their lean littermates. Animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of Panax ginseng berry extract for 12 days. On day 12, 150 mg/kg extract-treated ob/ob mice became normoglycemic (137 +/- 6.7 mg/dl) and had significantly improved glucose tolerance. The overall glucose excursion during the 2-h intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test decreased by 46% (P < 0.01) compared with vehicle-treated ob/ob mice.

Author(s): 
Attele, Anoja S.
Zhou, Yun-Ping
Xie, Jing-Tian
Wu, Ji An
Zhang, Liu
Dey, Lucy
Pugh, William
Rue, Paul A.
Polonsky, Kenneth S.
Yuan, Chun-Su
Publication Title: 
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of ginsenoside Re in adult male C57BL/6J ob/ob mice. Diabetic ob/ob mice with fasting blood glucose levels of approximately 230 mg/dl received daily intraperitoneal injections of 7, 20 and 60 mg/kg ginsenoside Re for 12 consecutive days. Dose-related effects of ginsenoside Re on fasting blood glucose levels were observed. After the 20 mg/kg treatment, fasting blood glucose levels were reduced to 188+/-9.2 and 180+/-10.8 mg/dl on Day 5 and Day 12, respectively (both P<0.01 compared to vehicle group, 229+/-9.5 and 235+/-13.4 mg/dl, respectively).

Author(s): 
Xie, Jing-Tian
Mehendale, Sangeeta R.
Li, Xinmin
Quigg, Richard
Wang, Xiaoyu
Wang, Chong-Zhi
Wu, Ji An
Aung, Han H.
A Rue, Paul
Bell, Graeme I.
Yuan, Chun-Su
Publication Title: 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

AIM: The antihyperglycemic effects of the total ginsenosides in Chinese ginseng (TGCG), extracted from leaves and the stem, were evaluated in diabetic C57BL/6J ob/ob mice. METHODS: Animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of TGCG (100 and 200 mg/kg) or oral administration (150 and 300 mg/kg) for 12 d. Fasting blood glucose levels and body weight were measured after fasting the animals for 4 h. Peripheral glucose use was also measured using an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test.

Author(s): 
Xie, Jing-Tian
Wang, Chong-Zhi
Wang, An-bao
Wu, Jian
Basila, Daniel
Yuan, Chun-Su
Publication Title: 
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

PURPOSE: We previously observed that American ginseng berry and ginsenoside Re attenuated cisplatin-induced emesis in a rat model, suggesting that the herb may have a value in treating chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting. However, it is not clear whether consuming ginseng concurrently with chemotherapy affects the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we explored if the ginseng extract and its constituents, ginsenosides Rb1, Rb3, and Re, alter tumoricidal activity of cisplatin in human cancer cells.

Author(s): 
Aung, Han H.
Mehendale, Sangeeta R.
Wang, Chong Zhi
Xie, Jing-Tian
McEntee, Eryn
Yuan, Chun-Su
Publication Title: 
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

PURPOSE: Panax notoginseng is a commonly used Chinese herb. Although a few studies have found that notoginseng shows anti-tumor effects, the effect of this herb on colorectal cancer cells has not been investigated. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer that interferes with the growth of cancer cells. However, this compound has serious side effects at high doses.

Author(s): 
Wang, Chong-Zhi
Luo, Xiaoji
Zhang, Bin
Song, Wen-Xin
Ni, Ming
Mehendale, Sangeeta
Xie, Jing-Tian
Aung, Han H.
He, Tong-Chuan
Yuan, Chun-Su
Publication Title: 
Planta Medica

Red Asian ginseng ( Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) is used in many Oriental countries. In this study, the saponin constituents and anticancer activities of steamed American ginseng ( Panax quinquefolius L.) roots were evaluated. The contents of 12 ginsenosides in the roots were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After the steaming treatment (100 - 120 degrees C for 1 h and 120 degrees C for 0.5 - 4 h), the quantity of 7 ginsenosides decreased and that of 5 others increased.

Author(s): 
Wang, Chong-Zhi
Aung, Han H.
Ni, Ming
Wu, Ji-An
Tong, Robin
Wicks, Sheila
He, Tong-Chuan
Yuan, Chun-Su
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Oncology

In this study, we evaluated the effects of Panax notoginseng root extract (NGRE) and its major constituents on SW480 human colorectal cancer cells. We used high performance liquid chromatography to determine the contents of major saponins in NGRE. The anti-proliferative effects were evaluated by the cell counting method, and concentration-related anti-proliferative effects were observed. At 1.0 mg/ml, NGRE inhibited cell growth by 85.8% (P<0.01), probably linked to the higher concentration of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1.

Author(s): 
Wang, Chong-Zhi
Xie, Jing-Tian
Zhang, Bin
Ni, Ming
Fishbein, Anna
Aung, Han H.
Mehendale, Sangeeta R.
Du, Wei
He, Tong-Chuan
Yuan, Chun-Su
Publication Title: 
Journal of Food Science

Diabetes is a serious chronic metabolic disease and has a significant impact on patients' lives and the health care system. We previously observed that the organic solvent extract of American ginseng berry possessed significant antidiabetic effects in obese diabetic ob/ob mice after intraperitoneal injection. If American ginseng berry is useful as a dietary supplement, simple preparation and oral intake would be a convenient, safe, and practical means for consumers.

Author(s): 
Xie, J. T.
Wang, C. Z.
Ni, M.
Wu, J. A.
Mehendale, S. R.
Aung, H. H.
Foo, A.
Yuan, C. S.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Oncology

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L., Araliaceae) possesses anti-cancer potential and is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines in the United States. Ginsenoside Rg3, one of the saponins in American ginseng, has been shown to inhibit tumor growth. In this study, we sought to characterize the downstream genes targeted by American ginseng extracts in HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells.

Author(s): 
Luo, Xiaoji
Wang, Chong-Zhi
Chen, Jin
Song, Wen-Xin
Luo, Jinyong
Tang, Ni
He, Bai-Cheng
Kang, Quan
Wang, Yitao
Du, Wei
He, Tong-Chuan
Yuan, Chun-Su

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