Glioma

Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Glioma, including anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are among the most commonly diagnosed malignant adult brain tumors. GBM is a highly invasive and angiogenic tumor, resulting in a 12 to 15 months median survival. The treatment of GBM is multimodal and includes surgical resection, followed by adjuvant radio-and chemotherapy. We have previously reported that short-term starvation (STS) enhances the therapeutic index of chemo-treatments by differentially protecting normal cells against and/or sensitizing tumor cells to chemotoxicity.

Author(s): 
Safdie, Fernando
Brandhorst, Sebastian
Wei, Min
Wang, Weijun
Lee, Changhan
Hwang, Saewon
Conti, Peter S.
Chen, Thomas C.
Longo, Valter D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neuro-Oncology

Regardless of their cell type of origin, all aggressive brain tumors, such as malignant gliomas and metastatic tumors produce brain edema, which is an important cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Caloric restriction (CR) has long been recognized as a natural therapy that improves health, promotes longevity, and significantly reduces both the incidence and growth of many tumor types. The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of CR on edema and survival in the mice implanted with U87 gliomas.

Author(s): 
Jiang, Yong-Sheng
Wang, Fu-Rong
Publication Title: 
Glia

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS that is cleared from the extracellular space by a family of high-affinity glutamate transporters. The astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2 is thought to carry out the uptake of the vast quantity of glutamate, and dysregulation of EAAT2 expression is involved in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders with marked excitotoxic components. Here, we present a novel epigenetic mechanism by which the human EAAT2 gene is kept in a silent state. Sequence inspection identified a classical CpG island at the EAAT2 promoter.

Author(s): 
Zschocke, J¸rgen
Allritz, Claudia
Engele, J¸rgen
Rein, Theo
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Artemether is the derivative extracted from Chinese traditional herb and originally used for malaria. Artemether also has potential therapeutic effects against tumors. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is an important cell surface adhesion molecule associated with malignancy of gliomas. In this work, we investigated the role and mechanism of artemether combined with shRNA interference of VCAM-1 (shRNA-VCAM-1) on the migration, invasion and apoptosis of glioma cells.

Author(s): 
Wang, Ying-Bin
Hu, Yi
Li, Zhen
Wang, Ping
Xue, Yi-Xue
Yao, Yi-Long
Yu, Bo
Liu, Yun-Hui
Publication Title: 
Di 1 jun yi da xue xue bao = Academic journal of the first medical college of PLA

OBJECTIVE: To explore a method for rapid construction of a full-length cDNA library of human glioma tissues using switching mechanism at 5' end of RNA transcript (SMART). METHODS: The total RNA was extracted from several samples of human glioma tissues and the mRNA was subsequently separated. Multiple mRNA samples were mixed to be used as the template for the first-strand cDNA synthesis.

Author(s): 
Tu, Yan-yang
Xu, Ru-xiang
Yang, Zhi-lin
Jiang, Xiao-dan
Wu, Shu-guang
Chen, Yi-zhao
Cai, Ying-qian
Du, Mou-xuan
Gao, Yang
Publication Title: 
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao = Journal of Southern Medical University

OBJECTIVE: To construct recombinant expression vectors of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting survivin and investigate apoptosis of glioma cell line U251 mediated by the survivin-targeting siRNA. METHODS: According to the sequence of the coding region of survivin gene, two strings of 19 nucleotides of inverted sequence flanking the loop sequence of two complementary 9-base oligonucleotides were designed and synthesized to form hairpin construct as the DNA templates for the target siRNA.

Author(s): 
Xu, Ru-xiang
Tu, Yan-yang
Jiang, Xiao-dan
Feng, Jiang-nan
Huang, Jun
Publication Title: 
Investigational New Drugs

Many naturally occurring substances of plant origin ingested in human diet, exhibit anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects. One of the active phytochemical which shows the active anticarcinogenic role is Piper longum Linn. (Pl). Pl is widely used in ayurvedic industry due to its property in healing some of the bodily ailments. Despite being known for the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic effects, its relation to brain and its tumour development is still scarce.

Author(s): 
Subramanian, Umadevi
Poongavanam, Sharmila
Vanisree, A. J.
Publication Title: 
Neurochemical Research

Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound highly enriched in grapes, peanuts, red wine, and a variety of food sources. Sulforaphane belongs to the family of isothiocyanates and is highly enriched in cruciferous vegetables. Our previous study showed that resveratrol, when used at high concentrations, inhibited cell proliferation, caused the cell cycle arrest and induced apoptotic cell death in glioma cells.

Author(s): 
Jiang, Hao
Shang, Xia
Wu, Hongtao
Huang, Grace
Wang, Yiyang
Al-Holou, Shaza
Gautam, Subhash C.
Chopp, Michael
Publication Title: 
Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology

Resveratrol (trans-3,4', 5-trihydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound that has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective properties and acts as a chemopreventive agent. Resveratrol causes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptotic cell death in various types of cancer cells. In the current studies, the effect of resveratrol on phosphoinositide kinase-3 (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was examined in human U251 glioma cells. Resveratrol decreased both the expression and phosphorylation of Akt.

Author(s): 
Jiang, Hao
Shang, Xia
Wu, Hongtao
Gautam, Subhash C.
Al-Holou, Shaza
Li, Christina
Kuo, Jarret
Zhang, Lijie
Chopp, Michael
Publication Title: 
Nature Medicine

Epileptic seizures are a common and poorly understood comorbidity for individuals with primary brain tumors. To investigate peritumoral seizure etiology, we implanted human-derived glioma cells into severe combined immunodeficient mice. Within 14-18 d, glioma-bearing mice developed spontaneous and recurring abnormal electroencephalogram events consistent with progressive epileptic activity. Acute brain slices from these mice showed marked glutamate release from the tumor mediated by the system x(c)(-) cystine-glutamate transporter (encoded by Slc7a11).

Author(s): 
Buckingham, Susan C.
Campbell, Susan L.
Haas, Brian R.
Montana, Vedrana
Robel, Stefanie
Ogunrinu, Toyin
Sontheimer, Harald

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