The aqueous extract from Terminalia chebula was tested for its ability to inhibit the growth and some physiological functions of Streptococcus mutans. The extract strongly inhibited the growth, sucrose induced adherence and glucan induced aggregation of S. mutans. Mouthrinsing with a 10% solution of the extract inhibited the salivary bacterial count and salivary glycolysis.
AIM: Many weapons are available in the arsenal of a dental professional to combat dental caries, which is almost ubiquitously present. From a public health perspective, most of these weapons are far from being an ideal drug. Hence, there is a demand for better and effective antibacterial agents. This factor stimulated the process of the present study. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula on Streptococcus mutans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried ripe fruits of Terminalia chebula were procured and powdered.
Fungal infections in the critically ill patient are difficult to diagnose and are associated with a high mortality rate. A major obstacle to managing fungal infection is the lack of a reliable clinical assay that will rapidly identify patients with fungal sepsis. Glucans are polymers of glucose that are found in the cell wall of fungi and certain bacteria. Glucans are also released from the fungal cell wall into the extracellular milieu. Several studies have reported that detection of fungal glucan in serum or plasma is useful in the diagnosis of mycoses.
We examined the effect of modulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity in a murine model of cecal ligation and puncture-induced polymicrobial sepsis. Inhibition of PI3K activity with wortmannin increased serum cytokine levels and decreased survival time in septic mice. We have reported that an immunomodulator, glucan phosphate, induces protection in murine polymicrobial sepsis. We observed that glucan stimulated tissue PI3K activity, which positively correlated with increased survival in septic mice.
OBJECTIVE: Immune and inflammatory signaling pathways, initiated by the innate response, are involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated MyD88-dependent NFkappaB pathways play a role in the induction of innate immunity. We have reported that glucan phosphate (GP) improved survival in experimental sepsis, which correlated with decreased tissue NFkappaB activation. In the present study, we report that GP rapidly induced cardioprotection against I/R injury in vivo.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Glucans are immunomodulatory carbohydrates found in the cell walls of fungi and certain bacteria. We examined the pharmacokinetics of three water-soluble glucans (glucan phosphate, laminarin, and scleroglucan) after oral administration of 1 mg/kg doses in rats. Maximum plasma concentrations for glucan phosphate occurred at 4 h. In contrast, laminarin and scleroglucan showed two plasma peaks between 0.5 and 12 h. At 24 h, 27 +/- 3% of the glucan phosphate and 20 +/- 7% of the laminarin remained in the serum. Scleroglucan was rapidly absorbed and eliminated.
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Myocardial dysfunction is a major consequence of septic shock and contributes to the high mortality of sepsis. We have previously reported that glucan phosphate (GP) significantly increased survival in a murine model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. In the present study, we examined the effect of GP on cardiac dysfunction in CLP-induced septic mice. GP was administered to ICR/HSD mice 1 h before induction of CLP. Sham surgically operated mice served as control. Cardiac function was significantly decreased 6 h after CLP-induced sepsis compared with sham control.
A water-soluble glucan (RCP-1) was prepared from the roots of Rubus crataegifolius Bge. by extraction with hot-water, deproteination by Sevag reagent, alpha-amylase treatment and ultrafiltration. RCP-1 consisted of only glucose, and its molecular weight was determined to be approximately 7KD by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), methylation and periodate oxidation analyses indicated that RCP-1 was an alpha-d-glucan.