The efficacy of pharmacological interventions used to treat canine atopic dermatitis, excluding fatty acid supplementation and allergen-specific immunotherapy, was evaluated based on the systematic review of prospective clinical trials published between 1980 and 2002.
Knee osteoarthritis is a common disabling condition that affects more than one-third of persons older than 65 years. Exercise, weight loss, physical therapy, intra-articular corticosteroid injections, and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and braces or heel wedges decrease pain and improve function. Acetaminophen, glucosamine, ginger, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e), capsaicin cream, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acupuncture, and tai chi may offer some benefit. Tramadol has a poor trade-off between risks and benefits and is not routinely recommended.
This guidance document reviews the epidemiology and management of pain in older people via a literature review of published research. The aim of this document is to inform health professionals in any care setting who work with older adults on best practice for the management of pain and to identify where there are gaps in the evidence that require further research.
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of multimodal care for the management of soft tissue injuries of the shoulder. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1990 to 2015. Two independent reviewers critically appraised studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. We used best evidence synthesis to synthesize evidence from studies with low risk of bias.
Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery: Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common diseases affecting adults. It is the most common chronic disease in children in the United States today and the fifth most common chronic disease in the United States overall. AR is estimated to affect nearly 1 in every 6 Americans and generates $2 to $5 billion in direct health expenditures annually. It can impair quality of life and, through loss of work and school attendance, is responsible for as much as $2 to $4 billion in lost productivity annually.
Numerous studies have shown that supplementation of the growth medium of human fibroblasts with dexamethasone at physiologic concentrations extends replicative lifespan up to 30%. While this extension of lifespan has been used to probe various aspects of the senescent phenotype, no mechanism for the increased lifespan of human fibroblasts grown in the presence of dexamethasone has ever been identified.
The human tyrosine hydroxylase (hTH) gene has a 42†bp evolutionarily conserved region designated (CR) II at -7.24†kb, which bears 93% homology to the region we earlier identified as containing the glucocorticoid response element, a 7†bp activator protein-1 (AP-1)-like motif in the rat TH gene. We cloned this hTH-CRII region upstream of minimal basal hTH promoter in luciferase (Luc) reporter vector, and tested glucocorticoid responsiveness in human cell lines.
It has been observed that susceptibility to many degenerative diseases increases concurrently with industrialization and rising living standards. Although epidemiologic studies suggest that specific environmental and dietary factors may be important, caloric intake alone (as reflected in body size) may account for much of the differential risk observed among diverse human populations.
The diet known as calorie restriction (CR) is the most reproducible way to extend the lifespan of mammals. Many of the early hypotheses to explain this effect were based on it being a passive alteration in metabolism. Yet, recent data from yeast, worms, flies, and mammals support the idea that CR is not simply a passive effect but an active, highly conserved stress response that evolved early in life's history to increase an organism's chance of surviving adversity.
Dietary restriction (DR) remains the most powerful and general environmental manipulation of aging processes in laboratory animals with strong beneficial effects on most age-related degenerative changes throughout the body. Underlying the beneficial effects of DR is the attenuation of system-wide inflammatory processes including those occurring within the central nervous system. During normal aging a progressive neuroinflammatory state builds in the brain involving astrocytes and microglia, the primary cellular components of neuroinflammation.