Publication Title: 
American Family Physician

Knee osteoarthritis is a common disabling condition that affects more than one-third of persons older than 65 years. Exercise, weight loss, physical therapy, intra-articular corticosteroid injections, and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and braces or heel wedges decrease pain and improve function. Acetaminophen, glucosamine, ginger, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e), capsaicin cream, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acupuncture, and tai chi may offer some benefit. Tramadol has a poor trade-off between risks and benefits and is not routinely recommended.

Ringdahl, Erika
Pandit, Sandesh
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy

This feature presents information for patients in a question and answer format. It is written to simulate actual questions that many pain patients ask and to provide answers in a context and language that most pain patients will comprehend. Issues addressed in this issue are carpel tunnel syndrome, fibromyalgia, glucosamine and chondroitin, hypnosis, marijuana.

Fishman, Scott M.
Publication Title: 
Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

The Indian Monocellate Cobra venom (NKV) showed anti-arthritic activity over FCA induced arthritis in male albino rats. NKV treatment (1/20th & 1/10th MLD doses x 13 days, i.p.) showed significant restoration in paw & ankle volume, paw weight. Urinary hydroxyproline, glucosamine, serum ACP, ALP and IL-10 level were restored significantly, due to NKV treatment, as compared with arthritic rats. NKV also showed significant protection against arthritis induced oxidative damages.

Gomes, Antony
Bhattacharya, Sourav
Chakraborty, Mousumi
Bhattacharjee, Pushpak
Mishra, Roshnara
Gomes, Aparna
Publication Title: 
Rheumatology (Oxford, England)

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate clinical equivalence between two standardized Ayurveda (India) formulations (SGCG and SGC), glucosamine and celecoxib (NSAID). METHODS: Ayurvedic formulations (extracts of Tinospora cordifolia, Zingiber officinale, Emblica officinalis, Boswellia serrata), glucosamine sulphate (2 g daily) and celecoxib (200 mg daily) were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-efficacy, four-arm, multicentre equivalence drug trial of 24 weeks duration. A total of 440 eligible patients suffering from symptomatic knee OA were enrolled and monitored as per protocol.

Chopra, Arvind
Saluja, Manjit
Tillu, Girish
Sarmukkaddam, Sanjeev
Venugopalan, Anuradha
Narsimulu, Gumdal
Handa, Rohini
Sumantran, Venil
Raut, Ashwinikumar
Bichile, Lata
Joshi, Kalpana
Patwardhan, Bhushan
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

Glucosamine represents one of the most commonly used drugs to treat osteoarthritis. However, mechanisms of its antiarthritic activities are still poorly understood. The present study identifies a novel mechanism of glucosamine-mediated anti-inflammatory activity. It is shown that both glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine inhibit IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-induced NO production in normal human articular chondrocytes.

Shikhman, A. R.
Kuhn, K.
Alaaeddine, N.
Lotz, M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Glucosamine, commonly consumed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, is classified as a nutritional supplement; however, there are few data regarding its metabolic or vascular effects. Glucosamine is a component of the hexosamine pathway, which has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Anecdotal reports suggest that glucosamine consumption can increase circulating cholesterol concentrations.

Tannock, Lisa R.
Kirk, Elizabeth A.
King, Victoria L.
LeBoeuf, Renee
Wight, Thomas N.
Chait, Alan
Publication Title: 
Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society

The Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) was a randomized double-blind placebo and active comparator (celecoxib) controlled trial of 1583 persons with symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee(1). Patients randomized to celecoxib had significant improvement in knee pain compared to those randomized to placebo.

Hochberg, M. C.
Clegg, D. O.
Publication Title: 
Arthritis and Rheumatism

OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee causes significant morbidity and current medical treatment is limited to symptom relief, while therapies able to slow structural damage remain elusive. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate (CS), alone or in combination, as well as celecoxib and placebo on progressive loss of joint space width (JSW) in patients with knee OA.

Sawitzke, Allen D.
Shi, Helen
Finco, Martha F.
Dunlop, Dorothy D.
Bingham, Clifton O.
Harris, Crystal L.
Singer, Nora G.
Bradley, John D.
Silver, David
Jackson, Christopher G.
Lane, Nancy E.
Oddis, Chester V.
Wolfe, Fred
Lisse, Jeffrey
Furst, Daniel E.
Reda, Domenic J.
Moskowitz, Roland W.
Williams, H. James
Clegg, Daniel O.
Publication Title: 
Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society

OBJECTIVE: Aminosugars are commonly used to treat osteoarthritis; however, molecular mechanisms mediating their anti-arthritic activities are still poorly understood. This study analyzes facilitated transport and metabolic effects of glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in human articular chondrocytes. METHODS: Human articular chondrocytes were isolated from knee cartilage. Facilitated transport of glucose, GlcN and GlcNAc was measured by uptake of [3H]2-deoxyglucose, [3H]GlcN and [3H]GlcNAc. Glucose transporter (GLUT) expression was analyzed by Western blotting.

Shikhman, A. R.
Brinson, D. C.
Valbracht, J.
Lotz, M. K.
Publication Title: 
Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society

OBJECTIVE: As part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored Glucosamine/Chondroitin sulfate Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) our objective here was to examine (1) the pharmacokinetics (PK) of glucosamine (GlcN) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) when taken separately or in combination as a single dose in normal individuals (n=29) and (2) the PK of GlcN and CS when taken as a single dose after 3 months daily dosing with GlcN, CS or GlcN+CS, in patients with symptomatic knee pain (n=28).

Jackson, C. G.
Plaas, A. H.
Sandy, J. D.
Hua, C.
Kim-Rolands, S.
Barnhill, J. G.
Harris, C. L.
Clegg, D. O.


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